Antioxidant activity of jionoside D from Clerodendron trichotomum.
The antioxidant property of jionoside D, isolated from Clerodendron trichotomum (Verbenaceae), was investigated. This compound showed scavenging activity of intracellular reactive oxygen species and of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, as well as lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity. This radical scavenging activity of jionoside D protected the cell viability of Chinese hamster lung fibroblast (V79-4) cells exposed H2O2. Furthermore, jionoside D reduced the apoptotic cells induced by H2O2, as demonstrated by the decreased number of sub G1 hypo-diploid cells and apoptotic body formation. However, it increased the activities of cellular antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase and catalase. Taken together, these findings suggest that jionoside D, isolated from C. trichotomum, exhibits antioxidant properties. (+info)
Evaluation of anticarcinogenic effects of Clerodendron inerme on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a) anthracene-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis.
INTRODUCTION: Oral cancer is the fifth most frequent cancer worldwide and India has recorded the highest incidence (40-50 percent) of oral malignancy. Clerodendron inerme is used by Indian traditional practitioners for the treatment of various ailments, including cancer. Our aim was to investigate the chemopreventive potential of the aqueous leaf extract of Clerodendron inerme (CiAet) in 7,12-dimethylbenz(a) anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. METHODS: We developed oral squamous cell carcinoma in the buccal pouch of male Syrian golden hamsters by painting them with 0.5% DMBA in liquid paraffin thrice a week for 14 weeks. The tumour incidence, tumour volume and tumour burden that were formed in the hamster buccal pouches were determined. RESULTS: Oral administration of CiAet at a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight to DMBA-painted animals on days alternate to DMBA painting for 14 weeks significantly prevented the tumour incidence, tumour volume and tumour burden. CiAet also exerts potent antilipidperoxidative effect and improved the antioxidant defence system in DMBA-painted animals. The chemopreventive efficacy of CiAet was evident by inhibition of tumour formation (80%) in DMBA-painted animals. CONCLUSION: The chemopreventive potential of CiAet is probably due to its antilipidperoxidative effect or the presence of some potent bioactive chemopreventive principles in the leaves of Clerodendron inerme. (+info)
Evaluation of the in vivo activity of different concentrations of Clerodendrum umbellatum Poir against Schistosoma mansoni infection in mice.
Clerodendrum umbellatum Poir (Verbenaceae) is traditionally used in Cameroon for the treatment of many diseases including intestinal helminthiasis. This study was undertaken to assess the in vivo antischistosomal activity of its leaves aqueous extract on a Schistosoma mansoni mice model and to determine the most effective dose of this extract. Mice showing a patent infection of S. mansoni were daily treated with C. umbellatum leaves aqueous extract at the doses of 40, 80 or 160 mg/kg body weight for 14 days. Seven days after administration of the extract, schistosomicidal activity was evaluated on the liver and spleen weights, faecal eggs releasing, liver egg count and worm burden. Treatment using C. umbellatum leaves aqueous extract resulted in an important reduction in faecal egg output by 75.49% and 85.14% for 80 mg/kg and 160 mg/kg of the extract respectively. These reduction rates did not differ significantly from the 100% obtained in the group of infected mice treated with 100 mg/kg of praziquantel. C. umbellatum leaves aqueous extract was lethal to S. mansoni worm. A 100% reduction rate was recorded in the group of infected mice treated with 160 mg/kg of the extract, as well as in praziquantel-treated mice. An amelioration of the hepatosplenomegaly was noticed in both the extract-treated mice and the praziquantel-treated mice. From these results, we can conclude that C. umbellatum leaves aqueous extract demonstrated schistosomicidal properties in S. mansoni model at doses of at least 80 mg/kg body weight. (+info)
Comprehensive review of Clerodendrum phlomidis: a traditionally used bitter.
Clerodendrum phlomidis Linn. f., (syn. Clerodendrum multiflorum (Burm.f) O. Kuntze, Volkameria multiflorum Burm. f.) (Lamiaceae) is an important and well known medicinal plant extensively used in Ayurveda and Siddha system of medicine for treatment of various ailments. The popular therapies include on inflammation, diabetes, nervous disorder, asthma, rheumatism, digestive disorders, and urinary disorders as well as a bitter tonic. It was reported that pectolinaringenin, scutellarein, clerodin, clerodendrin, clerosterol, 24beta-ethylcholesta-5,22E,25-triene-3beta-ol, lup-20(29)-en-3-triacontanoate, 4,2',4'-trihydroxy-6'-methoxychalcone-4,4'alpha-D-diglucoside, 7-hydroxyflavone, 7-hydroxyflavanone-7-O-glucoside and alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-2)alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-7-O-naringin-4'-O-alpha-D-glu copyranoside-5-methyl ether had been isolated from this plant. The alcoholic and aqueous extracts were reported active as analgesic, antidiarrhoeal, antiplasmodial, hypoglycemic, minor tranquilizers, anti-asthmatic, antifungal, nematicidal, anti-amnestic and anti-arthritic. There are coincidences between some of the traditional usages of this plant and experimentally observed effects of the extracts but very few biological studies available on bioactive fractions and/or pure compounds. This review is an attempt to compile the exhaustive literature on Clerodendrum phlomidis, to highlight, analyze and critically assess the pharmaceutical potential of this underestimated plant in a systematic way. (+info)
Antimicrobial and antiparasitic abietane diterpenoids from the roots of Clerodendrum eriophyllum.
Chromatographic separation of the roots of a Kenyan medicinal plant, Clerodendrum eriophyllum, led to the isolation of ten abietane diterpenoids (1-10), one of which (1) was isolated for the first time from a natural source. Using spectroscopic data, the structure of 1 was determined to be 12-hydroxy-8,12-abietadiene-3,11,14-trione. Circular dichroism (CD) spectra showed that the stereochemistry of compounds 1, 3, and 6-8 belongs to the normal series of abietane diterpenes, which confirmed the absolute stereochemistry of the isolated compounds. Compounds 1-10 were evaluated for their in vitro antiplasmodial, antileishmanial, antifungal and antibacterial activities. Compounds 3 and 7 exhibited potent antifungal activity (IC50/MIC 0.58/1.25 and 0.96/2.5 microg/mL, respectively) against C. neoformans, whereas 3, 6 and 7 showed strong antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus with IC50/MIC values between 1.33-1.75/2.5-5 and 0.96-1.56/2.5 microg/mL, respectively. In addition, compounds 3 and 9 exhibited potent antileishmanial activity (IC50 0.08 and 0.20 microg/mL, respectively) against L. donovani, while 3 and 7 displayed weak antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum, but 9 was inactive. (+info)
Development of nuclear SSRs for the insular shrub Clerodendrum izuinsulare (Verbenaceae) and the widespread C. trichotomum.
Isolation, characterization and thin-layer chromatography method development of clerosterol palmityl ester: a chemical marker for standardization of leaves of Clerodendrum phlomidis.
OBJECTIVE: Clerosterol palmityl ester (CPE) is a unique clerosterol derivative isolated and characterized from the leaves of Clerodendrum phlomidis. Considering the uniqueness of this compound, the present study was planned to use CPE as a specific chemical marker and develop a new validated thin-layer chromatography (TLC) method for standardisation of C. phlomidis. METHODS: Separation and quantification of CPE were achieved by TLC using a mobile phase of petroleum ether (60 to 80 degrees centigrade) and ethyl acetate (95:5, volume ratio) (Rf 0.64) on precoated silica gel 60F(254) aluminium plates. Densitometric determination was carried out after derivatization with anisaldehyde sulphuric acid reagent in absorption mode at 527 nm. RESULTS: The calibration curve was linear in the concentration range of 100 to 500 ng/spot. The method was validated for precision, repeatability and accuracy. The proposed method was found to be simple, specific, precise, accurate, rapid and cost-effective. CONCLUSION: This TLC procedure may be used effectively for quantitative determination of CPE, identification of the plant and standardization of this plant or its derived products. (+info)
Contribution of pollinators to seed production as revealed by differential pollinator exclusion in Clerodendrum trichotomum (Lamiaceae).