Independent ancient polyploidy events in the sister families Brassicaceae and Cleomaceae.
Recent studies have elucidated the ancient polyploid history of the Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae) genome. The studies concur that there was at least one polyploidy event occurring some 14.5 to 86 million years ago (Mya), possibly near the divergence of the Brassicaceae from its sister family, Cleomaceae. Using a comparative genomics approach, we asked whether this polyploidy event was unique to members of the Brassicaceae, shared with the Cleomaceae, or an independent polyploidy event in each lineage. We isolated and sequenced three genomic regions from diploid Cleome spinosa (Cleomaceae) that are each homoeologous to a duplicated region shared between At3 and At5, centered on the paralogs of SEPALLATA (SEP) and CONSTANS (CO). Phylogenetic reconstructions and analysis of synonymous substitution rates support the hypothesis that a genomic triplication in Cleome occurred independently of and more recently than the duplication event in the Brassicaceae. There is a strong correlation in the copy number (single versus duplicate) of individual genes, suggesting functionally consistent influences operating on gene copy number in these two independently evolving lineages. However, the amount of gene loss in Cleome is greater than in Arabidopsis. The genome of C. spinosa is only 1.9 times the size of A. thaliana, enabling comparative genome analysis of separate but related polyploidy events. (+info)
Does Cleome droserifolia have anti-schistosomiasis mansoni activity?
The present study was undertaken to assess the effect of the crude extract of Cleome droserifolia (CD) leaves on experimentally infected mice with Schistosoma mansoni. Two groups of mice, showing a patent infection of S. mansoni, one of them was daily treated with an alcoholic extract of CD leaves (0.31 g kg-1 body weight, i.p.) for 21 days. The schistosomicidal activity of the CD extract was evaluated, three weeks post-treatment, on some parasitological and histopathological aspects including worm load, oogram pattern, faecal eggs releasing and granuloma formation. In addition, serum thyroid hormones levels (tri-iodothyronine; T3 and tetra-iodo-thyronine; T4), serum total protein contents and hepatic reduced glutathione (GSH) were evaluated. Treatment using CD extract resulted in a weak reduction in worm burden (32.46%) and affected the viability of both mature and immature eggs as indicated by the increase in the percentage of dead eggs and the decrease in the percentage of live ones. In addition, a week post-treatment, eggs elimination was observed in the stool of the infected-treated group which was low compared to the infected group. There was a suppressive effect of the extract on granuloma formation that could be due to the antioxidant effect of the extract. These data are confirmed by increasing hepatic GSH, serum total proteins and thyroid hormone levels in the infected-treated group as compared to the infected group. Treatment significantly enhanced b globulin fractions of the protein. Based on these assumptions, CD extract has beneficial effects on thyroid hormones status and anti-schistosomiasis activity. The beneficial effects of CD extract could be related to its direct effects on the parasite, and secondary to its effect on the antioxidant capacity of the host. The present study could emphasize the precise mechanism (s) of CD extract protection. (+info)
Terpenoids from Cleome droserifolia (Forssk.) Del.
A new diacetyl triterpene lactone, drosericarpone (2), was isolated from the hexane extract of the herb Cleome droserifolia, together with buchariol (1, a sesquiterpene oxide, isolated for the first time from Cleome species) and stigmasterol glucoside (3). The structures of 1-3 were identified by spectroscopic means. (+info)
Hepatoprotective constituents from Cleome droserifolia.
The effect of ethanol extract from aerial parts of Cleome droserifolia was investigated against carbon tetrachloride induced liver injury. The hepatoprotective activity was evaluated through the quantification of biochemical parameters and confirmed using histopathology analysis. Efficient hepatoprotective effect was achieved by crude extract, fractions and some pure compounds. The phytochemical studies showed that the petroleum ether fraction afforded two known guaiane sesquiterpenes buchariol (1) and teucladiol (2) in addition to daucosterol (beta-sitosterol glucoside) (3). The CHCl(3) fraction afforded three known flavonoid derivatives; 5,3'-dihydroxy-3,6,7,4',5'-pentamethoxyflavone (4), 5'-hydroxy-3,6,7,3',4',5'-hexamethoxyflavone (5) and luteolin (6) and a known dolabellane diterpene (1R,2R,3E,7E,11R,12S)-2-O-acetyl-16-O-(3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl)-dolabella-3,7- dien-2,16,18-triol (7). The active parts of the MeOH fraction afforded the previously unreported 3'-methoxy-3,5,4'-trihydroxy flavone-7-neohesperidoside (8) and a known megastigmane norterpene; (6S,9R)-roseoside (9). (+info)
Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of Cleome gynandra L., a C(4) dicotyledon that is closely related to Arabidopsis thaliana.
Development of QSAR model for immunomodulatory activity of natural coumarinolignoids.
Immunomodulation is the process of alteration in immune response due to foreign intrusion of molecules inside the body. Along with the available drugs, a large number of herbal drugs are promoted in traditional Indian treatments, for their immunomodulating activity. Natural coumarinolignoids isolated from the seeds of Cleome viscose have been recognized as having hepatoprotective action and have recently been tested preclinically for their immunomodulatory activity affecting both cell-mediated and humoral immune response. To explore the immunomodulatory compound from derivatives of coumarinolignoids, a quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) and molecular docking studies were performed. Theoretical results are in accord with the in vivo experimental data studied on Swiss albino mice. Immunostimulatory activity was predicted through QSAR model, developed by forward feed multiple linear regression method with leave-one-out approach. Relationship correlating measure of QSAR model was 99% (R(2) = 0.99) and predictive accuracy was 96% (RCV(2) = 0.96). QSAR studies indicate that dipole moment, steric energy, amide group count, lambda max (UV-visible), and molar refractivity correlates well with biological activity, while decrease in dipole moment, steric energy, and molar refractivity has negative correlation. Docking studies also showed strong binding affinity to immunomodulatory receptors. (+info)
Diversity in forms of C4 in the genus Cleome (Cleomaceae).