Role of the choline exchanger in Na(+)-independent Mg(2+) efflux from rat erythrocytes.
Two types of Na(+)-independent Mg(2+) efflux exist in erythrocytes: (1) Mg(2+) efflux in sucrose medium and (2) Mg(2+) efflux in high Cl(-) media such as KCl-, LiCl- or choline Cl-medium. The mechanism of Na(+)-independent Mg(2+) efflux in choline Cl medium was investigated in this study. Non-selective transport by the following transport mechanisms has been excluded: K(+),Cl(-)- and Na(+),K(+),Cl(-)-symport, Na(+)/H(+)-, Na(+)/Mg(2+)-, Na(+)/Ca(2+)- and K(+)(Na(+))/H(+) antiport, Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel and Mg(2+) leak flux. We suggest that, in choline Cl medium, Na(+)-independent Mg(2+) efflux can be performed by non-selective transport via the choline exchanger. This was supported through inhibition of Mg(2+) efflux by hemicholinum-3 (HC-3), dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DoTMA) and cinchona alkaloids, which are inhibitors of the choline exchanger. Increasing concentrations of HC-3 inhibited the efflux of choline and efflux of Mg(2+) to the same degree. The K(d) value for inhibition of [(14)C]choline efflux and for inhibition of Mg(2+) efflux by HC-3 were the same within the experimental error. Inhibition of choline efflux and of Mg(2+) efflux in choline medium occurred as follows: quinine>cinchonine>HC-3>DoTMA. Mg(2+) efflux was reduced to the same degree by these inhibitors as was the [(14)C]choline efflux. (+info)
Transformation of Cinchona alkaloids into 1-N-oxide derivatives by endophytic Xylaria sp isolated from Cinchona pubescens.
The microbial transformation of four Cinchona alkaloids (quinine, quinidine, cinchonidine, and cinchonine) by endophytic fungi isolated from Cinchona pubescens was investigated. The endophytic filamentous fungus Xylaria sp. was found to transform the Cinchona alkaloids into their 1-N-oxide derivatives. (+info)
Highly stereoselective, uniformly sized molecularly imprinted polymers for cinchona alkaloids in hydro-organic mobile phases.
Highly stereoselective, uniformly sized molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) for cinchona alkaloids, cinchonine (CN) and cinchonidine (CD), were prepared using methacrylic acid (MAA) as a functional monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EDMA) as a cross-linker. The MIPs were evaluated using a mixture of phosphate buffer and acetonitrile as the mobile phase. The CN- and CD-imprinted MAA-co-EDMA polymers can recognize the respective template molecule more than the other diastereomer, and afford an excellent diastereomer separation of CN and CD. In addition, the MIPs gave diastereomer separations of structurally related compounds, quinidine and quinine. The retentive and stereoselective properties of those compounds on the MIPs suggest that electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions can work to recognize these compounds. Furthermore, thermodynamic studies reveal that the entropy-driven effect is significant at mobile-phase pH 5.4, while the enthalpy-driven interactions seem to be dominant at mobile-phase pH 9.6. (+info)
The relationship of physico-chemical properties and structure to the differential antiplasmodial activity of the cinchona alkaloids.
BACKGROUND: The 8-amino and 9-hydroxy substituents of antimalarial cinchona alkaloids have the erythro orientation while their inactive 9-epimers are threo. From the X-ray structures a 90 degrees difference in torsion angle between the N1-H1 and C9-O12 bonds in the two series is believed to be important. In order to kill the malaria parasite, alkaloids must cross the erythrocyte and parasite membranes to accumulate in the acid digestive vacuole where they prevent detoxication of haematin produced during haemoglobin breakdown. METHODS: Ionization constants, octanol/water distribution and haematin interaction are examined for eight alkaloids to explain the influence of small structural differences on activity. RESULTS: Erythro isomers have a high distribution ratio of 55:1 from plasma to the erythrocyte membrane, while for the more basic threo epimers this is only 4.5:1. This gives an increased transfer rate of the erythro drugs into the erythrocyte and thence into the parasite vacuole where their favourable conformation allows interaction with haematin, inhibiting its dimerization strongly (90 +/- 7%) and thereby killing the parasite. The threo compounds not only enter more slowly but are then severely restricted from binding to haematin by the gauche alignment of their N1-H1 and C9-O12 bonds. Confirmatory molecular models allowed measurement of angles and bond lengths and computation of the electronic spectrum of a quinine-haematin complex. CONCLUSION: Differences in the antiplasmodial activity of the erythro and threo cinchona alkaloids may therefore be attributed to the cumulative effects of lipid/aqueous distribution ratio and drug-haematin interaction. Possible insights into the mechanism of chloroquine-resistance are discussed. (+info)
Stereochemical evaluation of the relative activities of the cinchona alkaloids against Plasmodium falciparum.
Quinine and quinidine were over 100 times more active than 9-epiquinine and 9-epiquinidine against chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium falciparum and over 10 times more active against chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum. Since the only structural difference between quinine, quinidine, 9-epiquinine, and 9-epiquinidine is their three-dimensional configuration, the three-dimensional structures of these four alkaloids were examined in order to explain the large difference in relative activities between the 9-epi alkaloids and quinine and quinidine. The crystal structure of 9-epiquinidine hydrochloride monohydrate was determined by X-ray diffraction and was compared with the crystal structures of quinine, quinidine sulfate dihydrate, and 9-epiquinine hydrochloride dihydrate. The crystallographic parameters for 9-epiquinidine hydrochloride monohydrate were as follows: chemical formula, C20H25N2O2+.Cl-.H2O; M(r), 378.9; symmetry of unit cell, orthorhombic; space group, P2(1)2(1)2(1); parameters of unit cell, a was 7.042 +/- 0.001 A (1 A = 0.1 nm), b was 9.082 +/- 0.001 A, c was 31.007 +/- 0.005 A; the volume of unit cell was 1,983.1 +/- 0.6 A3; number of molecules per unit cell was 4; the calculated density was 1.27 g cm-3; the source of radiation was Cu K alpha (lambda = 1.54178 A); mu (absorption coefficient) was 18.82 cm-1; F(000) (sum of atomic scattering factors at zero scattering angle) was 808; room temperature was used; final R (residual index) was 5.72% for 1,501 reflections with magnitude of F(o) greater than 3 sigma (F). The intramolecular distance from N-1 to O-12 in 9-epiquinidine and 9-epiquinine, although shorter than the corresponding distance in quinine and quinidine, was similar to those of other active amino alcohol antimalarial agents. In all four alkaloids, both the hydroxyl and amine groups formed intermolecular hydrogen bonds, showing the potential for forming hydrogen bonds with cellular constituents. However, the positioning of the N+-1--H-N1 and O-12--H-O12 groups relative to each other was quite different in the 9-epi alkaloids versus quinidine. This difference in positioning may determine the relative strengths, of the formation of hydrogen bonds with cellular constituents important to antimalarial activity and, therefore, may determine the relative strength of antimalarial activity. (+info)
Dose-dependent resorption of quinine after intrarectal administration to children with moderate Plasmodium falciparum malaria.
The pharmacokinetics of increasing doses of an intrarectal Cinchona alkaloid combination containing 96.1% quinine, 2.5% quinidine, 0.68% cinchonine, and 0.67% cinchonidine (Quinimax) was compared to that of parenteral regimens in 60 children with moderate malaria. Quinine exhibited a nonlinear pharmacokinetics, suggesting a saturation of rectal resorption. When early rejections appeared, blood quinine concentrations decreased by 30 to 50% and were restored by an immediate half-dose administration of the drug. Rectal administration of doses of 16 or 20 mg/kg of body weight led to concentration-time profiles in blood similar to those of parenteral regimens and could be an early treatment of childhood malaria. (+info)
Carbon nanotubes as adsorbent of solid-phase extraction and matrix for laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.
A method with carbon nanotubes functioning both as the adsorbent of solid-phase extraction (SPE) and the matrix for matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) to analyze small molecules in solution has been developed. In this method, 10 microL suspensions of carbon nanotubes in 50% (vol/vol) methanol were added to the sample solution to extract analytes onto surface of carbon nanotubes because of their dramatic hydrophobicity. Carbon nanotubes in solution are deposited onto the bottom of tube with centrifugation. After removing the supernatant fluid, carbon nanotubes are suspended again with dispersant and pipetted directly onto the sample target of the MALDI-MS to perform a mass spectrometric analysis. It was demonstrated by analysis of a variety of small molecules that the resolution of peaks and the efficiency of desorption/ionization on the carbon nanotubes are better than those on the activated carbon. It is found that with the addition of glycerol and sucrose to the dispersant, the intensity, the ratio of signal to noise (S/N), and the resolution of peaks for analytes by mass spectrometry increased greatly. Compared with the previously reported method by depositing sample solution onto thin layer of carbon nanotubes, it is observed that the detection limit for analytes can be enhanced about 10 to 100 times due to solid-phase extraction of analytes in solution by carbon nanotubes. An acceptable result of simultaneously quantitative analysis of three analytes in solution has been achieved. The application in determining drugs spiked into urine has also been realized. (+info)
Cinchonine, a potent efflux inhibitor to circumvent anthracycline resistance in vivo.
Circumvention of multidrug resistance is a new field of investigation in cancer chemotherapy, and safe and potent multidrug resistance inhibitors are needed for clinical use. We investigated several analogues of quinine for their ability to increase anthracycline uptake in resistant cancer cells. Cinchonine was the most potent inhibitor of anthracycline resistance in vitro, and its activity was little altered by serum proteins. Serum from rats treated with i.v. cinchonine produced greater uptake of doxorubicin in cancer cells (DHD/K12/PROb rat colon cells and K562/ADM human leukemic cells) than did serum from quinine-treated rats (ex vivo assay). Cinchonine was more effective than quinine in reducing tumor mass and increasing the survival of rats inoculated i.p. with DHD/K12/PROb cells and treated i.p. with deoxydoxorubicin. Moreover, the acute toxicity of cinchonine in rats and mice was lower than that of other quinine-related compounds. The lower toxicity and greater potentiation of in vivo anthracycline activity produced by cinchonine are favorable characteristics for its use as an anti-multidrug resistance agent in future clinical trials. (+info)