123I-ADAM binding to serotonin transporters in patients with major depression and healthy controls: a preliminary study. (9/28)

The serotonergic system may play an important role in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). Few imaging studies have examined serotonin transporter (SERT) binding in patients with MDD. We hypothesized that SERT binding activity may be altered in patients with MDD. This study compared SERT binding in patients with MDD with that in healthy controls. METHODS: We studied SERT activity in 7 patients (22-50 y old) with moderate to severe MDD and 6 healthy controls (24-56 y old) using (123)I-labeled 2-((2-((dimethylamino)methyl) phenyl)thio)-5-iodophenylamine (ADAM) and SPECT brain imaging. Subjects underwent SPECT 4 h after intravenous administration of 185 MBq (5 mCi) of (123)I-ADAM. Images were reconstructed in the axial plane, and region-of-interest demarcations were placed on the midbrain, medial temporal region, and basal ganglia region. RESULTS: (123)I-ADAM binding to SERT in the midbrain was significantly lower (P = 0.01) in MDD patients (1.81 +/- 0.07) than in controls (1.95 +/- 0.13). Age-adjusted (123)I-ADAM binding in the midbrain correlated significantly with scores on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (r = 0.82; P = 0.02). A significant negative correlation was observed between (123)I-ADAM SERT binding in the midbrain and age in the healthy control group (r = 0.98; P = 0.0002). SERT binding in the basal ganglia or medial temporal regions of interest did not significantly differ between groups. CONCLUSION: The findings from this preliminary study suggest the possibility of decreased SERT binding in the midbrain region of patients with MDD, with the degree of decrease correlating with the severity of depressive symptoms. There also appears to be an age-related decline in midbrain (123)I-ADAM SERT binding in healthy subjects.  (+info)

SPECT of serotonin transporters using 123I-ADAM: optimal imaging time after bolus injection and long-term test-retest in healthy volunteers. (10/28)

(123)I-ADAM (2-([2-([dimethylamino]methyl)phenyl]thio)-5-(123)I-iodophenylamine) has been recently proposed as a new serotonin transporter (SERT) ligand for SPECT. The objective of this study was to characterize (123)I-ADAM in healthy volunteers. (123)I-ADAM distribution in the normal brain, pseudoequilibrium interval after a single injection, normal specific uptake values, and long-term test-retest variability and reliability were investigated. METHODS: Ten healthy volunteers underwent 2 SPECT sessions under the same conditions 47.6 +/- 24.0 d apart. Scans were sequentially acquired from the time of (123)I-ADAM intravenous injection up to 12 h after injection. Regions of interest (ROIs) for cerebellum (C), midbrain, thalamus, striatum, mesial temporal region, and cortex were drawn on MR images and pasted to corresponding SPECT slices after coregistration. Specific uptake ratios (SURs) at pseudoequilibrium and the simplified reference tissue model (SRTM) methods were used for quantification. SURs were obtained as ([region - C]/C) at each time point. Test-retest variability and reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC]) were calculated. RESULTS: The highest (123)I-ADAM specific uptake was found in the midbrain and thalamus, followed by the striatum and mesial temporal region. Quantification results using SUR and SRTM were correlated with R = 0.93 (test) and R = 0.94 (retest). SURs remained stable in all regions from 4 to 6 h after injection. Using SUR, test-retest variability/ICC were 13% +/- 11%/0.74 in midbrain, 16% +/- 13%/0.63 in thalamus, 19% +/- 18%/0.62 in striatum, and 22% +/- 19%/0.05 in mesial temporal region. CONCLUSION: (123)I-ADAM accumulates in cerebral regions with high known SERT density. The optimal imaging time for (123)I-ADAM SPECT quantification is suggested to be from 4 to 6 h after a single injection. Long-term test-retest variability and reliability found in the midbrain are comparable to that reported with other (123)I-labeled SPECT ligands. These results support the use of (123)I-ADAM SPECT for SERT imaging after a single injection in humans.  (+info)

Serotonin transporter binding of [123I]ADAM in bulimic women, their healthy twin sisters, and healthy women: a SPET study. (11/28)

BACKGROUND: Bulimia Nervosa (BN) is believed to be caused by an interaction of genetic and environmental factors. Previous studies support the existence of a bulimia-related endophenotype as well as disturbances in serotonin (5-HT) transmission. We studied serotonin transporter (SERT) binding in BN, and to investigate the possibility of a SERT-related endophenotype for BN, did this in a sample of female twins. We hypothesized clearly reduced SERT binding in BN women as opposed to healthy women, and intermediate SERT binding in unaffected co-twins. METHODS: We studied 13 female twins with BN (9 with purging and 4 with non-purging BN) and 25 healthy women, including 6 healthy twin sisters of BN patients and 19 women from 10 healthy twin pairs. [123I]ADAM, a selective SERT radioligand for single photon emission tomography (SPET) imaging, was used to assess SERT availability in the midbrain and the thalamus. RESULTS: No differences in SERT binding were evident when comparing the BN women, their unaffected co-twins and the healthy controls (p = 0.14). The healthy sisters of the BN patients and the healthy control women had similar SERT binding in both brain regions. In a post hoc subgroup analysis, the purging bulimics had higher SERT binding than the healthy women in the midbrain (p = 0.03), but not in the thalamus. CONCLUSION: Our finding of increased SERT binding in the midbrain in the purging BN women raises the possibility that this subgroup of bulimics might differ in serotonergic function from the non-purging ones. The similarity of the unaffected co-twins and the healthy controls doesn't support our initial assumption of a SERT-related endophenotype for BN. Due to the small sample size, our results need to be interpreted with caution and verified in a larger sample.  (+info)

[I-123] ADAM and SPECT in patients with borderline personality disorder and healthy control subjects. (12/28)

OBJECTIVE: Serotonergic dysfunction is considered to be involved in the pathophysiology of borderline personality disorder (BPD). The aim of this study was to investigate serotonin transporter availability in patients with BPD as a marker of the central serotonergic system. METHODS: Eight unmedicated patients with BPD and 9 healthy control subjects received single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) 4 hours after injection of 185 MBq [I-123] ADAM (2-([2-([dimethylamino]methyl)phenyl]thio)). As a measure of brain serotonin transporter (SERT) availability, ratios of specific-to-nonspecific [I-123] ADAM binding for the brainstem and hypothalamus were calculated with an occipital reference. Levels of impulsiveness and depressive symptoms were assessed with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory. RESULTS: Mean specific-to-nonspecific ratios showed a 43% higher brainstem and a 12% higher hypothalamus ADAM binding in patients, compared with control subjects. We found significant correlations of ADAM binding with both age and impulsiveness but not depression. Associations of BIS scores with ADAM binding remained significant after controlling for age and depression (r = 0.69, p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: The study provides evidence of a serotonergic dysfunction in patients with BPD and suggests a serotonergic component in the pathophysiology of the disorder. SERT binding reflected the level of impulsiveness as a common feature in BPD.  (+info)

Evaluation of the Serotonin Transporter Ligand 123I-ADAM for SPECT Studies on Humans. (13/28)

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123I-ADAM SPECT imaging of serotonin transporter binding in patients with night eating syndrome: a preliminary report. (14/28)

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Design and synthesis of cinanserin analogs as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 3CL protease inhibitors. (15/28)

The severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus 3CL protease is an attractive target for the development of anti-SARS drugs. In this paper, cinanserin (1) analogs were synthesized and tested for the inhibitory activities against SARS-coronavirus (CoV) 3CL protease by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) assay. Four analogs show significant activities, especially compound 26 with an IC(50) of 1.06 microM.  (+info)

The SPECT tracer [123I]ADAM binds selectively to serotonin transporters: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study in healthy young men. (16/28)

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