Comparative study of carbohydrate-protein complexes. II. Determination of hydroxylysine and its glycosides in human skin and scar collagens by an improved method.
A modification of the existing methods for measuring hydroxylysine, galactosylhydroxylysine, and glucosylgalactosylhydroxylysine is described. The method is based on analysis with an automated amino acid analyzer using a conventional separation system for basic amino acids. The prior removal of acidic and neutral amino acids was necessary. This was achieved by passing an alkaline hydrolysate of collagen through a column of Amberlite CG-120, Type II (H+) and washing the column with 8% aqueous pyridine. A basic fraction containing the hydroxylysine compounds was then recovered from the column by elution with 3 M NH4OH. Model experiments showed that hydroxylysine and its glycosides could be analyzed with an hour and that recoveries exceeded 90%. This method was applied to human tissues to investigate whether the dermal scar is different in collagen composition from normal skin. With the limited number of samples analyzed, the data suggested that long-standing scar tissues reverted to a composition similar to that of normal skin. The composition of hydroxylysine-linked carbohydrate units is also discussed on the basis of the age-related change. (+info)
Cicatricial fibromatoses usually occur in the anterior abdominal wall or in the extremities, but rarely in the scalp or the soft tissues of the neck. We report a case of desmoid fibromatosis that developed in a 15-year-old boy 8 months after surgery for cerebellar medulloblastoma. (+info)
Abnormal reaction to central nervous system injury in mice lacking glial fibrillary acidic protein and vimentin.
In response to injury of the central nervous system, astrocytes become reactive and express high levels of the intermediate filament (IF) proteins glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), vimentin, and nestin. We have shown that astrocytes in mice deficient for both GFAP and vimentin (GFAP-/-vim-/-) cannot form IFs even when nestin is expressed and are thus devoid of IFs in their reactive state. Here, we have studied the reaction to injury in the central nervous system in GFAP-/-, vimentin-/-, or GFAP-/-vim-/- mice. Glial scar formation appeared normal after spinal cord or brain lesions in GFAP-/- or vimentin-/- mice, but was impaired in GFAP-/-vim-/- mice that developed less dense scars frequently accompanied by bleeding. These results show that GFAP and vimentin are required for proper glial scar formation in the injured central nervous system and that some degree of functional overlap exists between these IF proteins. (+info)
Role of elevated plasma transforming growth factor-beta1 levels in wound healing.
Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 plays a central role in wound healing. Wounds treated with neutralizing antibody to TGF-beta1 have a lower inflammatory response, reduced early extracellular matrix deposition, and reduced later cutaneous scarring, indicating the importance of local tissue TGF-beta1. By contrast, increasing the local, tissue levels of TGF-beta1 increases the early extracellular matrix deposition but does not alter scar formation. Increased levels of plasma TGF-beta1 correlate with increased fibrogenesis in the lung, kidneys, and liver. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of elevated systemic levels of TGF-beta1 on wound healing. We used transgenic mice that express high levels of active TGF-beta1 and have elevated plasma levels of TGF-beta1 and wild-type mice of the same strain as controls. Incisional wounds and subcutaneously implanted polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) sponges were analyzed. Surprisingly, cutaneous wounds in transgenic, TGF-beta1-overexpressing mice healed with reduced scarring accompanied by an increase in the immunostaining for TGF-beta3 and TGF-beta-receptor RII and a decrease in immunostaining for TGF-beta1 compared with wounds in control mice. By contrast, the PVA sponges showed the opposite response, with PVA sponges from transgenic mice demonstrating an enhanced rate of cellular influx and matrix deposition into the sponges accompanied by an increase in the immunostaining for all three TGF-beta isoforms and their receptors compared with PVA sponges from control mice. Together, the data demonstrate that increased circulating levels of TGF-beta1 do not always result in increased expression or activity in selected target tissues such as the skin. The two wound models, subcutaneously implanted PVA sponges and cutaneous incisional wounds, differ significantly in terms of host response patterns. Finally, the data reinforce our previous observations that the relative ratios of the three TGF-beta isoforms is critical for control of scarring. (+info)
Laparoscopic management of an ectopic pregnancy in a previous Caesarean section scar.
A case of laparoscopic management of an ectopic pregnancy in a previous Caesarean section scar is reported. A 30 year old woman was admitted to our hospital for profuse vaginal bleeding 2 weeks after an abortion had been performed. A urine pregnancy test was positive. Abdominal ultrasound revealed a well-encapsulated bulging mass over the lower anterior uterine wall measuring 7x5 cm. Hysteroscopy revealed retained gestational tissue in the lower corpus despite a normal uterine cavity. An incision was made over the most prominent area of the mass by operative laparoscopy. Dark reddish tissue suggestive of the products of conception was removed using grasping forceps. One-layer of continuous endoscopic sutures along the affected uterine wall was made with 1-0 Prolene. Laparoscopy enabled the successful treatment of an unruptured ectopic pregnancy in a previous Caesarean scar and made it possible to preserve the patient's reproductive capability. (+info)
Clear cell carcinoma arising in a Cesarean section scar endometriosis: a case report.
Endometriosis of a surgical scar is rare and occurs mainly when a hysterectomy or Cesarean section was performed. We describe a 54-year-old woman with a large suprapubic mass as a definite case of a endomerioid carcinoma developing within the scar endometriosis following Cesarean section. Scar endometriosis, as well as endometriosis at other sites, can turn malignant. Endometrioid carcinoma is the most common histological pattern of malignant tumor arising in endometriosis. But clear cell carcinoma is very unusual. A case of primary clear cell carcinoma in endometriosis of a Cesarean section scar is described. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documented case of endomerioid carcinoma developing within the scar endometriosis in Korea. (+info)
Bias due to incomplete follow up in a cohort study.
AIM: To investigate the bias introduced by incomplete follow up in a cohort study of ocular outcome after premature birth. METHODS: A geographically defined cohort of children born before 32 weeks' gestation was prospectively recruited at birth to study the ocular outcome at 2 years. On the basis of attendance at 2 years, the children's families were allocated to one of three groups: group 1 attended for follow up, group 2 were difficult to trace, and group 3 were very reluctant for assessment. All children were examined by a single ophthalmologist, masked to these groupings. RESULTS: 558 children (98.8% of study group) were examined, of whom 505 were in group 1, 20 in group 2, and 33 in group 3. The groups which were more difficult to study (groups 2 and 3) showed a significantly higher prevalence of ocular abnormalities, including strabismus (p=0. 02) and cicatricial retinopathy of prematurity (p=0.002) compared with those attending for follow up. Further, not all of these cases could have been identified by review of the children's previous records. Ocular abnormalities would be underestimated by 16% (11.3% in group 1 compared with 13.4% in the total cohort, p=0.77). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that the prevalence of abnormalities would be underestimated by incomplete follow up, as those subjects who were most difficult to obtain for study had a significantly higher prevalence of abnormalities. (+info)
Ophthalmic abnormalities in patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.
PURPOSE: To determine the frequency of ophthalmic abnormalities in patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (mycosis fungoides and Sezary syndrome) and T-cell lymphoma involving the skin and to describe the clinical course of the disease with selected examples. METHODS: A computerized diagnostic retrieval system was used to identify all patients with T-cell lymphoma involving the skin who were examined at the Mayo Clinic (Rochester, Minnesota) between January 1, 1976 and December 31, 1990. The medical records of affected patients were reviewed. RESULTS: During the 15-year interval from 1976 through 1990, cutaneous T-cell lymphoma was diagnosed in 2,155 patients. Of these 2,155 patients, 42 (1.95%; 26 male and 16 female) had at least 1 ophthalmic abnormality attributable to the disease. The diagnoses in these 42 patients were mycosis fungoides in 19, clinical variants of T-cell lymphoma of the skin (most commonly, peripheral T-cell lymphoma) in 11, and Sezary syndrome in 12. Cicatricial eyelid ectropion was the most common finding, affecting 17 (40.4%) of the 42 patients. Thirty-seven patients had findings that, although probably not a direct consequence of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, have been cataloged in previous studies. CONCLUSION: Although ophthalmic abnormalities in patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma are relatively uncommon, the manifestations of the disease are diverse and frequently difficult to treat. (+info)