R73A and H144Q mutants of the yeast mitochondrial cyclophilin Cpr3 exhibit a low prolyl isomerase activity in both peptide and protein-folding assays.
Previously we reported that the R73A and H144Q variants of the yeast cyclophilin Cpr3 were virtually inactive in a protease-coupled peptide assay, but retained activity as catalysts of a proline-limited protein folding reaction [Scholz, C. et al. (1997) FEBS Lett. 414, 69-73]. A reinvestigation revealed that in fact these two mutations strongly decrease the prolyl isomerase activity of Cpr3 in both the peptide and the protein-folding assay. The high folding activities found previously originated from a contamination of the recombinant Cpr3 proteins with the Escherichia coli protein SlyD, a prolyl isomerase that co-purifies with His-tagged proteins. SlyD is inactive in the peptide assay, but highly active in the protein-folding assay. (+info)
Kinetic study of alpha-chymotrypsin catalysis with regard to the interaction between the specificity-determining site and the aromatic side chain of substrates.
In order to investigate how changes in the structures of side-chain aromatic groups of specific substrates influence binding and kinetic specificity in alpha chymotrypsin [EC 22.214.171.124]-catalyzed reactions, a number of nucleus-substituted derivatives of the specific ester substrates were prepared and steady-state kinetic studies were carried out at pH 6.5 and 7.8. Ac-Trp(NCps)-OMe was hydrolyzed more readily at low substrate concentration than Ac-Trp-OMe due to its smaller Km(app) value, suggesting that the bulky 2-nitro-4-carboxyphenylsulfenyl moiety interacts with outer residues rather than with those in the hydrophobic pocket and that this interaction increases the binding specificity. Inhibition experiments using the corresponding carboxylate and analogous inhibitors, however, showed that the carboxy group at the para position of the phenyl nucleus of the substituent sterically hinders association with the active site of alpha-chymotrypsin at pH 7.8 but not at pH 6.5. The kcat values of Ac-Trp(CHO)-0Me, Ac-Tyr(3-NO2)-OMe, and Ac-m-Tyr-OMe were much higher than those of the corresponding specific substrates, indicating that derivatives with a substitute as large as a formyl, nitro or hydroxyl group at the xi-position are stereochemically favorable to the catalytic process. Remarkable increases in Km(app) were also observed. The individual parameters for Ac-Dopa-OMe, however, were comparable to those for Ac-Tyr-OMe. (+info)
A method for analyzing enzyme kinetics with substrate activation and inhibition and its application to the alpha-chymotrypsin-catalyzed hydrolysis of phenyl acetates.
A general kinetic method was developed to analyze enzyme-catalyzed systems complicated by the presence of activation or inhibition by substrate. The method was applied to the alpha-chymotrypsin [EC 126.96.36.199]-catalyzed hydrolysis of p-chlorophenyl and p-methoxyphenyl acetates. Deacylation rate constants which were not complicated by substrate activation were obtained. The analysis shows that the abnormal substituent dependence of kcat in the steady state hydrolysis is due not to substrate activation but to inappropriateness of the two-step mechanism or the existence of more than one acetyl-enzyme intermediate. (+info)
The amino acid sequence of Neurospora NADP-specific glutamate dehydrogenase. Peptic and chymotryptic peptides and the complete sequence.
Peptic and chymotryptic peptides were isolated form the NADP-specific glutamate dehydrogenase of Neurospora crassa and substantially sequenced. Out of 452 residues in the polypeptide chain, 265 were recovered in the peptic and 427 in the chymotryptic peptides. Together with the tryptic peptides [Wootton, J. C., Taylor, J. G., Jackson, A. A., Chambers, G. K. & Fincham, J. R. S. (1975) Biochem. J. 149, 749-755], these establish the complete sequence of the chain, including the acid and amide assignments, except for seven places where overlaps are inadequate. These remaining alignments are deduced from information on the CNBr fragments obtained in another laboratory [Blumenthal, K. M., Moon, K. & Smith, E. L. (1975), J. Biol. Chem. 250, 3644-3654]. Further information has been deposited as Supplementary Publication SUP 50054 (17 pages) with the British Library (Lending Division), Boston Spa, Wetherby, W. Yorkshire LS23 7BQ, U.K., from whom copies may be obtained under the terms given in Biochem. J. (1975) 145, 5. (+info)
Neuroregulation by vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) of mucus secretion in ferret trachea: activation of BK(Ca) channels and inhibition of neurotransmitter release.
1. The aims of this study were to determine: (1) whether vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) regulates cholinergic and 'sensory-efferent' (tachykininergic) 35SO4 labelled mucus output in ferret trachea in vitro, using a VIP antibody, (2) the class of potassium (K+) channel involved in VIP-regulation of cholinergic neural secretion using glibenclamide (an ATP-sensitive K+ (K(ATP)) channel inhibitor), iberiotoxin (a large conductance calcium activated K+ (BK(ca)) channel blocker), and apamin (a small conductance K(ca) (SK(ca)) channel blocker), and (3) the effect of VIP on cholinergic neurotransmission using [3H]-choline overflow as a marker for acetylcholine (ACh) release. 2. Exogenous VIP (1 and 10 microM) alone increased 35SO4 output by up to 53% above baseline, but suppressed (by up to 80% at 1 microM) cholinergic and tachykininergic neural secretion without altering secretion induced by ACh or substance P (1 microM each). Endogenous VIP accounted for the minor increase in non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic (NANC), non-tachykininergic neural secretion, which was compatible with the secretory response of exogenous VIP. 3. Iberiotoxin (3 microM), but not apamin (1 microM) or glibenclamide (0.1 microM), reversed the inhibition by VIP (10 nM) of cholinergic neural secretion. 4. Both endogenous VIP (by use of the VIP antibody; 1:500 dilution) and exogenous VIP (0.1 microM), the latter by 34%, inhibited ACh release from cholinergic nerve terminals and this suppression was completely reversed by iberiotoxin (0.1 microM). 5. We conclude that, in ferret trachea in vitro, endogenous VIP has dual activity whereby its small direct stimulatory action on mucus secretion is secondary to its marked regulation of cholinergic and tachykininergic neurogenic mucus secretion. Regulation is via inhibition of neurotransmitter release, consequent upon opening of BK(Ca) channels. In the context of neurogenic mucus secretion, we propose that VIP joins NO as a neurotransmitter of i-NANC nerves in ferret trachea. (+info)
Unexpected crucial role of residue 225 in serine proteases.
Residue 225 in serine proteases of the chymotrypsin family is Pro or Tyr in more than 95% of nearly 300 available sequences. Proteases with Y225 (like some blood coagulation and complement factors) are almost exclusively found in vertebrates, whereas proteases with P225 (like degradative enzymes) are present from bacteria to human. Saturation mutagenesis of Y225 in thrombin shows that residue 225 affects ligand recognition up to 60,000-fold. With the exception of Tyr and Phe, all residues are associated with comparable or greatly reduced catalytic activity relative to Pro. The crystal structures of three mutants that differ widely in catalytic activity (Y225F, Y225P, and Y225I) show that although residue 225 makes no contact with substrate, it drastically influences the shape of the water channel around the primary specificity site. The activity profiles obtained for thrombin also suggest that the conversion of Pro to Tyr or Phe documented in the vertebrates occurred through Ser and was driven by a significant gain (up to 50-fold) in catalytic activity. In fact, Ser and Phe are documented in 4% of serine proteases, which together with Pro and Tyr account for almost the entire distribution of residues at position 225. The unexpected crucial role of residue 225 in serine proteases explains the evolutionary selection of residues at this position and shows that the structural determinants of protease activity and specificity are more complex than currently believed. These findings have broad implications in the rational design of enzymes with enhanced catalytic properties. (+info)
Identification of protein-disulfide isomerase activity in fibronectin.
Assembly and degradation of fibronectin-containing extracellular matrices are dynamic processes that are up-regulated during wound healing, embryogenesis, and metastasis. Although several of the early steps leading to fibronectin deposition have been identified, the mechanisms leading to the accumulation of fibronectin in disulfide-stabilized multimers are largely unknown. Disulfide-stabilized fibronectin multimers are thought to arise through intra- or intermolecular disulfide exchange. Several proteins involved in disulfide exchange reactions contain the sequence Cys-X-X-Cys in their active sites, including thioredoxin and protein-disulfide isomerase. The twelfth type I module of fibronectin (I12) contains a Cys-X-X-Cys motif, suggesting that fibronectin may have the intrinsic ability to catalyze disulfide bond rearrangement. Using an established protein refolding assay, we demonstrate here that fibronectin has protein-disulfide isomerase activity and that this activity is localized to the carboxyl-terminal type I module I12. I12 was as active on an equal molar basis as intact fibronectin, indicating that most of the protein-disulfide isomerase activity of fibronectin is localized to I12. Moreover, the protein-disulfide isomerase activity of fibronectin appears to be partially cryptic since limited proteolysis of I10-I12 increased its isomerase activity and dramatically enhanced the rate of RNase refolding. This is the first demonstration that fibronectin contains protein-disulfide isomerase activity and suggests that cross-linking of fibronectin in the extracellular matrix may be catalyzed by a disulfide isomerase activity contained within the fibronectin molecule. (+info)
Isolation and identification of three bactericidal domains in the bovine alpha-lactalbumin molecule.
Proteolytic digestion of alpha-lactalbumin by pepsin, trypsin and chymotrypsin yielded three polypeptide fragments with bactericidal properties. Two fragments were obtained from the tryptic digestion. One was a pentapeptide with the sequence EQLTK (residues 1-5) and the other, GYGGVSLPEWVCTTF ALCSEK (residues (17-31)S-S(109-114)), was composed of two polypeptide chains held together by a disulfide bridge. Fragmentation of alpha-lactalbumin by chymotrypsin yielded CKDDQNPH ISCDKF (residues (61-68)S-S(75-80)), also a polypeptide composed of two polypeptide chains held together by a disulfide bridge. The three polypeptides were synthesized and found to exert antimicrobial activities. The polypeptides were mostly active against Gram-positive bacteria. Gram-negative bacteria were only poorly susceptible to the bactericidal action of the polypeptides. GYGGVSLPEWVCTTF ALCSEK was most, EQLTK least bactericidal. Replacement of leucine (23) with isoleucine, having a similar chemical structure but higher hydrophobicity, in the sequence GYGGVSLPEWVCTTF ALCSEK significantly reduced the bactericidal capacity of the polypeptide. Digestion of alpha-lactalbumin by pepsin yielded several polypeptide fragments without antibacterial activity. alpha-Lactalbumin in contrast to its polypeptide fragments was not bactericidal against all the bacterial strains tested. Our results suggest a possible antimicrobial function of alpha-lactalbumin after its partial digestion by endopeptidases. (+info)