Isolation and identification of dihydrochrysanolide and its 1-epimer from Chrysanthemum coronarium L.
A new sesquiterpene lactone (1) was isolated with known dihydrochrysanolide derivatives (2 and 3) from the flowers of Chrysanthemum coronarium L., and their structures were identified by spectroscopic data. The stereochemistry of the epimers (1 and 2) was determined from NOESY data and an X-ray crystallographic analysis. The isolated compounds (1-3) were examined for their cytotoxic activity against such human cell lines as A549, PC-3 and HCT-15. (+info)
Effect of day and night temperature on internode and stem length in chrysanthemum: is everything explained by DIF?
In many plant species, including chrysanthemum, a strong positive correlation between internode length and DIF [difference between day (DT) and night (NT) temperature] has been observed. However, Langton and Cockshull (1997. Scientia Horticulturae 69: 229-237) reported no such relationship and showed that absolute DT and NT explained internode length rather than DIF. To investigate these conflicting results and to clarify the validity of the DIF concept, cut chrysanthemums (Chrysanthemum 'Reagan Improved') were grown in growth chambers at all 16 combinations of four DT and four NT (16, 20, 24 and 28 degrees C) with a 12 h day length. Length of internode 10, number of internodes and stem length were measured on days 5, 10, 17, 22 and 27 after starting the temperature treatments. Internode length on day 10 showed a positive linear relationship with DIF (R2 = 0.64). However, when internodes had reached their final length in all treatments (day 27), a much stronger positive linear relation was observed (R2 = 0.81). A model to predict final internode length was developed based on the absolute DT and NT responses: both responses were optimum curves and no significant interaction between DT and NT occurred [final internode length (mm) = -32.23 + 3.56DT + 1.08NT - 0.0687DT2 - 0.0371NT2; R2 = 0.91, where TD is day temperature and TN is night temperature]. It is shown that DIF can predict final internode length only within a temperature range where effects of DT and NT are equal in magnitude and opposite in sign (18-24 degrees C). Internode appearance rate, as well as stem length formed during the experiment, showed an optimum response to DT. (+info)
Medicinal flowers. VI. Absolute stereostructures of two new flavanone glycosides and a phenylbutanoid glycoside from the flowers of Chrysanthemum indicum L.: their inhibitory activities for rat lens aldose reductase.
Two new flavanone glycosides, (2S)- and (2R)-eriodictyol 7-O-beta-D-glucopyranosiduronic acids, and a new phenylbutanoid glycoside, (2S, 3S)-1-phenyl-2,3-butanediol 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, were isolated from the flowers of Chrysanthemum indicum L. cultivated in China together with eight flavonoids. The absolute stereostructures of the new compounds were determined on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence. Both of the new flavanone glycosides were found to show inhibitory activity for rat lens aldose reductase. (+info)
Modelling of temperature-controlled internode elongation applied to chrysanthemum.
The DIF concept states that equal internode length can be achieved with the same difference between day and night temperature irrespective of the mean 24 h temperature. However, the physiological background of the DIF concept is unclear. An attempt to model internode elongation is presented based on three plausible processes, namely (1) the accumulation of elongation requirements during the day, (2) elongation during the night using elongation requirements and (3) the limitation of internode length due to low turgor pressure unable to counter cell wall elasticity. Each reaction rate constant, one per process, depends on temperature according to Arrhenius' Law. The resulting process-based model describes internode elongation in time and was calibrated on a chrysanthemum data set. Chrysanthemum plants were grown in growth chambers with rigorously defined day and night temperatures. In total, 16 temperature treatments were applied, resulting from the combination of four day and four night temperatures (16, 20, 24 and 28 degrees C). Internode elongation was measured for the tenth internode in ten plants per treatment. The percentage variance accounted for, R2adj, was almost 91%. Transferability of model parameters was shown to exist by cross validation. Simulation of the internode length in time as function of mean 24 h temperature and DIF showed that the DIF concept is not apparent after a growing period of 10 d, but is visible after 20 d. This model structure for describing internode elongation might also be applicable for other plants that show the DIF concept. (+info)
Simulation of leaf area development based on dry matter partitioning and specific leaf area for cut chrysanthemum.
This work aims to predict time courses of leaf area index (LAI) based on dry matter partitioning into the leaves and on specific leaf area of newly formed leaf biomass (SLA(n)) for year-round cut chrysanthemum crops. In five glasshouse experiments, each consisting of several plant densities and planted throughout the year, periodic destructive measurements were conducted to develop empirical models for partitioning and for SLA(n). Dry matter partitioning into leaves, calculated as incremental leaf dry mass divided by incremental shoot dry mass between two destructive harvests, could be described accurately (R(2 )= 0.93) by a Gompertz function of relative time, R(t). R(t) is 0 at planting date, 1 at the start of short-days, and 2 at final harvest. SLA(n), calculated as the slope of a linear regression between periodic measurements of leaf dry mass (LDM) and LAI, showed a significant linear increase with the inverse of the daily incident photosynthetically active radiation (incident PAR, MJ m(-2 )d(-1)), averaged over the whole growing period, the average glasshouse temperature and plant density (R(2 )= 0.74). The models were validated by two independent experiments and with data from three commercial growers, each with four planting dates. Measured shoot dry mass increase, initial LAI and LDM, plant density, daily temperature and incident PAR were input into the model. Dynamics of LDM and LAI were predicted accurately by the model, although in the last part of the cultivation LAI was often overestimated. The slope of the linear regression of simulated against measured LDM varied between 0.95 and 1.09. For LAI this slope varied between 1.01 and 1.12. The models presented in this study are important for the development of a photosynthesis-driven crop growth model for cut chrysanthemum crops. (+info)
Using the expolinear growth equation for modelling crop growth in year-round cut chrysanthemum.
The aim of this study was to predict crop growth of year-round cut chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.) based on an empirical model of potential crop growth rate as a function of daily incident photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, MJ m-2 d-1), using generalized estimated parameters of the expolinear growth equation. For development of the model, chrysanthemum crops were grown in four experiments at different plant densities (32, 48, 64 and 80 plants m-2), during different seasons (planting in January, May-June and September) and under different light regimes [natural light, shading to 66 and 43 % of natural light, and supplementary assimilation light (ASS, 40-48 micro mol m-2 s-1)]. The expolinear growth equation as a function of time (EXPOT) or as a function of incident PAR integral (EXPOPAR) effectively described periodically measured total dry mass of shoot (R2 > 0.98). However, growth parameter estimates for the fitted EXPOPAR were more suitable as they were not correlated to each other. Coefficients of EXPOPAR characterized the relative growth rate per incident PAR integral [rm,i (MJ m-2)-1] and light use efficiency (LUE, g MJ-1) at closed canopy. In all four experiments, no interaction effects between treatments on crop growth parameters were found. rm,i and LUE were not different between ASS and natural light treatments, but were increased significantly when light levels were reduced by shading in the summer experiments. There was no consistent effect of plant density on growth parameters. rm,i and LUE showed hyperbolic relationships to average daily incident PAR averaged over 10-d periods after planting (rm,i) or before final harvest (LUE). Based on those relationships, maximum relative growth rate (rm, g g-1 d-1) and maximum crop growth rate (cm, g m-2 d-1) were described successfully by rectangular hyperbolic relationships to daily incident PAR. In model validation, total dry mass of shoot (Wshoot, g m-2) simulated over time was in good agreement with measured ones in three independent experiments, using daily incident PAR and leaf area index as inputs. Based on these results, it is concluded that the expolinear growth equation is a useful tool for quantifying cut chrysanthemum growth parameters and comparing growth parameter values between different treatments, especially when light is the growth-limiting factor. Under controlled environmental conditions the regression model worked satisfactorily, hence the model may be applied as a simple tool for understanding crop growth behaviour under seasonal variation in daily light integral, and for planning cropping systems of year-round cut chrysanthemum. However, further research on leaf area development in cut chrysanthemum is required to advance chrysanthemum crop growth prediction. (+info)
Antimutagenic activity of flavonoids from Chrysanthemum morifolium.
A methanol extract from the flower heads of Chrysanthemum morifolium showed a suppressive effect on umu gene expression of the SOS response in Salmonella typhimurium TA1535/pSK1002 against the mutagen 2-(2-furyl)-3-(5-nitro-2-furyl)acrylamide (furylfuramide). The methanol extract was re-extracted with hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol, and water. The ethyl acetate fraction showed a suppressive effect. Suppressive compounds in the ethyl acetate fraction were isolated by silica gel column chromatography and identified as the flavonoids acacetin (1), apigenin (2), luteolin (3), and quercetin (4) by EI-MS, IR, and (1)H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Compounds 1-4 suppressed the furylfuramide-induced SOS response in the umu test. Compounds 1-4 suppressed 60.2, 75.7, 90.0, and 66.6% of the SOS-inducing activity at a concentration of 0.70 micromol/ml. The ID50 (50% inhibitory dose) values of 1-4 were 0.62, 0.55, 0.44, and 0.59 micromol/ml. These compounds had the suppressive effects on umu gene expression of the SOS response against other mutagens, 4-nitroquinolin 1-oxide (4NQO) and N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG), which do not require liver-metabolizing enzymes. These compounds also showed the suppression of SOS-inducing activity against the other mutagens aflatoxin B1 (AfB1) and 3-amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-1), which require liver-metabolizing enzymes, and UV irradiation. In addition to the antimutagenic activities of these compounds against furylfuramide, Trp-P-1 and activated Trp-P-1 were also assayed by the Ames test using S. typhimurium TA100. (+info)
Identification and characterization of four chrysanthemum MADS-box genes, belonging to the APETALA1/FRUITFULL and SEPALLATA3 subfamilies.
Four full-length MADS-box cDNAs from chrysanthemum, designated Chrysanthemum Dendrathema grandiflorum MADS (CDM) 8, CDM41, CDM111, and CDM44, have been isolated and further functionally characterized. Protein sequence alignment and expression patterns of the corresponding genes suggest that CDM8 and CDM41 belong to the FRUITFULL (FUL) clade, CDM111 is a member of the APETALA1 (AP1) subfamily, and CDM44 is a member of the SEPALLATA3 (SEP3) subfamily of MADS-box transcription factors. Overexpression of CDM111 in Arabidopsis plants resulted in an aberrant phenotype that is reminiscent of the phenotype obtained by ectopic expression of the AP1 gene. In addition, CDM111 was able to partially complement the ap1-1 mutant from Arabidopsis, illustrating that CDM111 is the functional equivalent to AP1. Yeast two- and three-hybrid studies were performed to investigate the potential protein interactions and complexes in which these chrysanthemum MADS-box proteins are involved. Based on these studies, we conclude that CDM44 is most likely the SEP3 functional equivalent, because the CDM44 protein interacts with CDM proteins of the AP1/FUL and AG subfamilies, and as a higher order complex with the heterodimer between the presumed B-type CDM proteins. (+info)