It remains to be seen whether the world will move in time to fix the Y2K bug, or whether computers around the world will shut down when the clock strikes midnight on 31 December 1999. Y2K could have a serious impact on environmental facilities, particularly given the extent to which computer software and microchips are now involved in pollution control and environmental monitoring and protection systems. (+info)
Assessment of public health computer readiness for 2000--United States, 1999.
Computer software, equipment, and other devices that contain embedded microchips that store and process dates may use two-digit years (e.g., 99 for 1999) to reduce data entry burden and save electronic storage space; these devices may not work properly when the year 2000 (Y2K) arrives. Many aspects of health-care delivery, public health surveillance and research, and critical infrastructure components (e.g., utilities and transportation services) depend on vulnerable computers. To ensure that critical public health functions will not be compromised because of Y2K problems, CDC assessed state public health agency readiness for Y2K. This report describes the findings of the assessment, which indicate that state health agencies that responded are substantially ready for Y2K and plan to reach full readiness in 1999. (+info)
Publication of survey results of assessment of state health agencies' readiness for 2000.
Following publication of the results of a CDC assessment of the readiness for the year 2000 (Y2K) of state health agencies, CDC conducted a follow-up survey during June-August 1999 in which 47 states and the District of Columbia-covering 98.7% of the U.S. population-responded. Overall, responding states are 99% complete with Y2K assessment and 90% complete with Y2K readiness. Additional information from the states and trends from the initial to the follow-up survey identify no significant Y2K readiness vulnerabilities in critical public health functions. Complete results of this survey are available on the World-Wide Web at http://www.cdc.gov/y2k/y2kssurvey.htm++ + and from the Information Resources Management Office, CDC, Mailstop D45, 1600 Clifton Rd., N.E., Atlanta, GA 30333. CDC continues to work with states on Y2K readiness, including identifying and communicating Y2K issues that may occur during the transition to 2000. (+info)
Reading radiographs in chronological order, in pairs or as single films has important implications for the discriminative power of rheumatoid arthritis clinical trials.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of reading series of films in chronological order, in pairs with unknown time sequence, or as single films, on precision and sensitivity to change. METHODS: Two studies were performed with 10 and 12 patients fulfilling the American College of Rheumatology criteria. In Study 1, two sets of films with a 1 yr interval were scored in chronological order, in pairs, and as single films. In Study 2, four sets of films, with a 1 yr interval each, were scored in chronological order, as single films and as single-pair (right and left together). All films were scored with the Sharp/van der Heijde method by two independent observers. Data were analysed with a repeated measures ANOVA using a full mixed effects model. Two generalizability (G) coefficients were constructed for reliability and for change. RESULTS: Study 1: the interobserver reliability was similar for the three methods (G(reliability) chronological 0.94, paired 0.88, single 0.93); progression was a mean increase (averaged over patients, observers and methods) from 26 to 37 (P=0.046). The sensitivity for change was greater for the chronological than for the paired and single scoring (G(change) 0.39, 0.22 and 0.24, respectively). Study 2: the interobserver reliability was 0.86 for chronological, 0.76 for single-pair and 0.91 for single readings. Significantly more progression was measured with the chronological compared with the single-paired and single methods (15.9 vs 8.5 and 8.3; P=0.0001). A constant progression was suggested by chronological reading, in contrast to a stabilization in the other two methods after 1 yr. CONCLUSION: Reading films in chronological order is most sensitive to change in a time period up to 3 yr follow-up; this was already present after 1 yr, but even more pronounced with longer follow-up. (+info)
Differing temporal patterns of onset in subgroups of patients with intracerebral hemorrhage.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to further analyze the temporal patterns of onset of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and to determine whether or not subgroups with specific clinical characteristics exhibit different patterns of onset. METHODS: The daily, weekly, and yearly variations in occurrence of ICH together with the relationship between ICH occurrence and changes in air temperature were evaluated in 1018 patients. Patients were grouped according to the presumed etiology of ICH: hypertensive ICH, secondary ICH, and ICH of undetermined origin. The contribution of demographic and clinical factors to the temporal distributions of ICH was also evaluated. RESULTS: Marked differences in seasonal and diurnal patterns of ICH onset were observed in the different groups. The incidence of hypertensive ICH reflected seasonal and circadian changes in blood pressure, whereas the latter did not seem related to the onset of nonhypertensive ICH. The seasonal pattern was more evident in elderly patients with hypertensive ICH than in younger subjects. No significant weekly variations were observed; however, risk was greater on Monday in the working population. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the higher incidence of ICH in the colder months is due to the effect of low temperatures on blood pressure and that the clustering of ICH events in the morning is due to the increase in sympathetic tone, and consequent increase in blood pressure, on awakening. (+info)
The onset of generalized osteoarthritis in older women: a qualitative approach.
OBJECTIVE: This qualitative study aims to investigate which factors are possibly associated with the onset of generalized osteoarthritis (OA) in older women. METHODS: The study population was recruited from participants of a group course, "Coping With Osteoarthritis of the Hip or Knee." Twenty-three women with generalized OA were identified, 20 of whom participated in a semistructured interview at home. All data were self-reported by the subjects. RESULTS: Hereditary factors were present in 17 women. Metabolic factors (such as impairments in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, diabetes, etc.) were not prevalent. Twelve women thought that certain diets influenced their pain symptoms. Five women spontaneously mentioned their health status during the Second World War as a cause of their OA. Four considered too much stress as being a cause, and in 13 women symptoms started after a period of stressful life events or depression. CONCLUSION: According to the respondents, depression, stress, and diets are associated with the onset and worsening of their generalized OA. Heredity and a low health status at a vulnerable age may also be important. These findings could generate new hypotheses that can be tested in future quantitative studies. (+info)
Prognostic significance of blood pressure measured on rising.
Previous works using ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring demonstrated that independently of the mean level of BP, the variability in BP, or the day-night range, could have prognostic significance. We have also found that the value of BP on rising in the morning is strongly correlated with left ventricular mass of hypertensive individuals independently of the 24-h value. In the present study, we sought its predictive value for cardiovascular complications in a cohort of hypertensive patients. The population studied belongs to a cohort of initially untreated hypertensive patients recruited since 1983 and followed for more than 5 years. Patients were then treated and followed by their family doctor. At entry, all patients were equipped with a device to measure ambulatory BP. They were requested to trigger a measurement manually on rising in the morning (arising BP). The data on their outcome were collected by a physician unaware of the initial state of the patients. A total of 256 patients have been followed up for 5 years or more, 19 were lost to follow-up. The mean follow-up period was 84 +/- 29 months. Cardiovascular complications were recorded in 23 individuals. The arising systolic BP (SBP) was significantly higher in the group who presented a complication. In a stepwise discriminant analysis including age, office, fitting, arising and 24-h average SBPs only age and arising SBP entered the equation. In conclusion, the single BP value measured by an ambulatory device on rising in the morning seems more discriminant of future cardiovascular events than the value of BP measured on fitting the device or the average of three measurements taken under standardised conditions in the hospital or office. (+info)
Oxidative DNA damage and alteration of glutamate transporter expressions in the hippocampal Ca1 area immediately after ischemic insult.
Although oxidative stress and excitotoxicity may be interdependent mechanisms that are involved in delayed neuronal death, the temporal participation of these events in the early stage after ischemia-reperfusion insult is unclear. Therefore, in the present study, using the gerbil global ischemic model we investigated whether oxidative stress could be correlated with the expression of the glutamate transporters in the hippocampus, and whether these events are related and cooperate in the events that link ischemia to neuronal death in vivo. Thirty minutes after ischemia, the intensities of glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1), glutamate/aspar-tate transporter (GLAST), and 8-hydroxy2'-deoxy-guanosine (8-OHdG) immunoreactivities were markedly increased in the hippocampal CA1 area. In contrast, excitatory amino acid carrier-1 (EAAC-1) immunoreactivity was 30% lower in the CA1 area than in the sham level. At 3 h post-reperfusion, the EAAC-1 expression began to increase in the CA1 area. Twelve hours after reperfusion, the reduction of both GLT-1 and GLAST immunoreactivity was salient, while the EAAC-1 immunoreactivity level intensified significantly. The 8-OHdG immunoreactivity peaked at this time point. These findings suggest that oxidative stress and alterations in the glutamate transporter expression in the CA1 area may simultaneously trigger neuronal damages very early after ischemia. (+info)