A new FISH protocol with increased sensitivity for physical mapping with short probes in plants.
Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a well-established technique used for the detection of specific DNA regions, that has been applied to interphase nuclei, pachytene and metaphase chromosomes as well as to extended DNA fibres. This technique allows the physical mapping of specific DNA sequences both on individual chromosomes and extended fibres. A new FISH protocol is described here that enhances the sensitivity of the method. Probes for small unique DNA sequences of less than 2 kb give high signal-to-noise ratio with this method, and can be visualized easily by means of conventional fluorescence microscopy. (+info)
Quantitative trait loci for component physiological traits determining salt tolerance in rice.
Rice (Oryza sativa) is sensitive to salinity, which affects one-fifth of irrigated land worldwide. Reducing sodium and chloride uptake into rice while maintaining potassium uptake are characteristics that would aid growth under saline conditions. We describe genetic determinants of the net quantity of ions transported to the shoot, clearly distinguishing between quantitative trait loci (QTL) for the quantity of ions in a shoot and for those that affect the concentration of an ion in the shoot. The latter coincide with QTL for vegetative growth (vigor) and their interpretation is therefore ambiguous. We distinguished those QTL that are independent of vigor and thus directly indicate quantitative variation in the underlying mechanisms of ion uptake. These QTL independently govern sodium uptake, potassium uptake, and sodium:potassium selectivity. The QTL for sodium and potassium uptake are on different linkage groups (chromosomes). This is consistent with the independent inheritance of sodium and potassium uptake in the mapping population and with the mechanistically different uptake pathways for sodium and potassium in rice under saline conditions (apoplastic leakage and membrane transport, respectively). We report the chromosomal location of ion transport and selectivity traits that are compatible with agronomic needs and we indicate markers to assist selection in a breeding program. Based upon knowledge of the underlying mechanisms of ion uptake in rice, we argue that QTL for sodium transport are likely to act through the control of root development, whereas QTL for potassium uptake are likely to act through the structure or regulation of membrane-sited transport components. (+info)
The Arabidopsis eer1 mutant has enhanced ethylene responses in the hypocotyl and stem.
By screening for enhanced ethylene-response (eer) mutants in Arabidopsis, we isolated a novel recessive mutant, eer1, which displays increased ethylene sensitivity in the hypocotyl and stem. Dark-grown eer1 seedlings have short and thick hypocotyls even in the absence of added ethylene. This phenotype is suppressed, however, by the ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor 1-aminoethoxyvinyl-glycine. Following ethylene treatment, the dark-grown eer1 hypocotyl response is greatly exaggerated in comparison with the wild type, indicating that the eer1 phenotype is not simply due to ethylene overproduction. eer1 seedlings have significantly elevated levels of basic-chitinase expression, suggesting that eer1 may be highly sensitive to low levels of endogenous ethylene. Adult eer1 plants display exaggerated ethylene-dependent stem thickening, which is an ethylene response previously unreported in Arabidopsis. eer1 also has enhanced responsiveness to the ethylene agonists propylene and 2,5-norbornadiene. The eer1 phenotype is completely suppressed by the ethylene-insensitive mutation etr1-1, and is additive with the constitutive ethylene-response mutation ctr1-3. Our findings suggest that the wild-type EER1 product acts to oppose ethylene responses in the hypocotyl and stem. (+info)
The molecular genetic linkage map of the model legume Medicago truncatula: an essential tool for comparative legume genomics and the isolation of agronomically important genes.
BACKGROUND: The legume Medicago truncatula has emerged as a model plant for the molecular and genetic dissection of various plant processes involved in rhizobial, mycorrhizal and pathogenic plant-microbe interactions. Aiming to develop essential tools for such genetic approaches, we have established the first genetic map of this species. Two parental homozygous lines were selected from the cultivar Jemalong and from the Algerian natural population (DZA315) on the basis of their molecular and phenotypic polymorphism. RESULTS: An F2 segregating population of 124 individuals between these two lines was obtained using an efficient manual crossing technique established for M. truncatula and was used to construct a genetic map. This map spans 1225 cM (average 470 kb/cM) and comprises 289 markers including RAPD, AFLP, known genes and isoenzymes arranged in 8 linkage groups (2n = 16). Markers are uniformly distributed throughout the map and segregation distortion is limited to only 3 linkage groups. By mapping a number of common markers, the eight linkage groups are shown to be homologous to those of diploid alfalfa (M. sativa), implying a good level of macrosynteny between the two genomes. Using this M. truncatula map and the derived F3 populations, we were able to map the Mtsym6 symbiotic gene on linkage group 8 and the SPC gene, responsible for the direction of pod coiling, on linkage group 7. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that Medicago truncatula is amenable to diploid genetic analysis and they open the way to map-based cloning of symbiotic or other agronomically-important genes using this model plant. (+info)
The molecular characterization of maize B chromosome specific AFLPs.
The origin and evolution of B chromosomes could be explained by the specific DNA sequence on them. But the specific sequences known were quite limited. To investigate maize B chromosome sqicific DNA sequeces, maize genomes with and without B chromosomes were analyzed by AFLP. Only 5 markers were found specific to genomes with B chromosomes among about 2000 AFLP markers. Southern hybridization and sequence analysis revealed that only the sequence of M8-2D was a B chromosome specific sequence. This sequence contained the telomeric repeat unit AGG (+info)
Maize tertiary trisomic stocks derived from B-A translocations.
Reciprocal translocations between supernumerary B chromosomes and the basic complement of A chromosomes in maize have resulted in a powerful set of tools to manipulate the dosage of chromosomal segments. From 15 B-A reciprocal translocation stocks that have the B-A chromosome genetically marked we have developed tertiary trisomic stocks. Tertiary trisomics are 2n + 1 aneuploids where the extra chromosome is a translocation element, in this case a B-A chromosome. Whereas B-A translocations produce aneuploidy in the sperm, the tertiary trisomic plant efficiently transmits hyperploid gametes maternally. Because the B-A tertiary trisomic stocks and the B-A translocation stocks from which they were derived are introgressed into the W22 inbred line, the effects of maternally and paternally transmitted trisomic B-A chromosomes can be compared. Data are presented on both the male and female transmission rates of the B-A chromosomes in the tertiary trisomic stocks. (+info)
Physical and genetic mapping in the grasses Lolium perenne and Festuca pratensis.
A single chromosome of the grass species Festuca pratensis has been introgressed into Lolium perenne to produce a diploid monosomic substitution line 2n = 2x = 14. In this line recombination occurs throughout the length of the F. pratensis/L. perenne bivalent. The F. pratensis chromosome and recombinants between it and its L. perenne homeologue can be visualized using genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). GISH junctions represent the physical locations of sites of recombination, enabling a range of recombinant chromosomes to be used for physical mapping of the introgressed F. pratensis chromosome. The physical map, in conjunction with a genetic map composed of 104 F. pratensis-specific amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs), demonstrated: (1) the first large-scale analysis of the physical distribution of AFLPs; (2) variation in the relationship between genetic and physical distance from one part of the F. pratensis chromosome to another (e.g., variation was observed between and within chromosome arms); (3) that nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) and centromeres greatly reduce recombination; (4) that coding sequences are present close to the centromere and NORs in areas of low recombination in plant species with large genomes; and (5) apparent complete synteny between the F. pratensis chromosome and rice chromosome 1. (+info)
A molecular cytogenetic map of sorghum chromosome 1. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis with mapped bacterial artificial chromosomes.
We used structural genomic resources for Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench to target and develop multiple molecular cytogenetic probes that would provide extensive coverage for a specific chromosome of sorghum. Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones containing molecular markers mapped across sorghum linkage group A were labeled as probes for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Signals from single-, dual-, and multiprobe BAC-FISH to spreads of mitotic chromosomes and pachytene bivalents were associated with the largest sorghum chromosome, which bears the nucleolus organizing region (NOR). The order of individual BAC-FISH loci along the chromosome was fully concordant to that of marker loci along the linkage map. In addition, the order of several tightly linked molecular markers was clarified by FISH analysis. The FISH results indicate that markers from the linkage map positions 0.0-81.8 cM reside in the short arm of chromosome 1 whereas markers from 81.8-242.9 cM are located in the long arm of chromosome 1. The centromere and NOR were located in a large heterochromatic region that spans approximately 60% of chromosome 1. In contrast, this region represents only 0.7% of the total genetic map distance of this chromosome. Variation in recombination frequency among euchromatic chromosomal regions also was apparent. The integrated data underscore the value of cytological data, because minor errors and uncertainties in linkage maps can involve huge physical regions. The successful development of multiprobe FISH cocktails suggests that it is feasible to develop chromosome-specific "paints" from genomic resources rather than flow sorting or microdissection and that when applied to pachytene chromatin, such cocktails provide an especially powerful framework for mapping. Such a molecular cytogenetic infrastructure would be inherently cross-linked with other genomic tools and thereby establish a cytogenomics system with extensive utility in development and application of genomic resources, cloning, transgene localization, development of plant "chromonomics," germplasm introgression, and marker-assisted breeding. In combination with previously reported work, the results indicate that a sorghum cytogenomics system would be partially applicable to other gramineous genera. (+info)