Partial monosomy and partial trisomy 18 in two offspring of carrier of pericentric inversion of chromosome 18.
A pericentric inversion of chromosome 18 is described in the mother of a patient with clinical diagnosis of 18q--syndrome. The propositus' chromosome complement includes the recombinant 18 with deficiency of the distal one-third of the long arm and duplication of the terminal segment of the short arm. The propositus' sister carrier the recombinant 18 with a duplication of the distal one-third of the long arm and a deficiency of the terminal segment of the short arm. The relative length of the inverted segment represents about 60% of the total chromosome 18 length. The probability of recombinant formation following the occurrence of a chiasma within the inverted segment is predicted to be high. (+info)
Modification of non-conservative double-strand break (DSB) rejoining activity after the induction of cisplatin resistance in human tumour cells.
The induction of collateral radioresistance after the development of cisplatin resistance is a well-documented phenomenon; however, the exact processes that are responsible for the cisplatin-induced radioresistance remain to be elucidated. There was no obvious difference in the level of radiation-induced DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), in DSB rejoining rates, or the level of the catalytic subunit of the DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs) in the cisplatin- and radiation-sensitive 2780/WT and cisplatin-resistant 2780/CP cell lines. However, there was a significantly (P < 0.01) lower level of DSB misrejoining activity within nuclear protein extracts derived from the cisplatin- and radiation-sensitive 2780/WT and OAW42/WT tumour cell lines than in similar extracts from their cisplatin- (and radiation-) resistant 2780/CP and OAW42/CP counterparts. All of the DSB misrejoining events involved deletions of between 134 and 444 bp that arose through illegitimate recombination at short repetitive sequences, such as those that arise through non-homologous repair (NHR). These data further support the notion that the radiosensitivity of DSB repair proficient human tumour cell lines may be partly determined by the predisposition of these cell lines to activate non-conservative DSB rejoining pathways. Furthermore, our data suggest that the induction of acquired cisplatin resistance is associated with a two- to threefold decrease in the activity of a non-conservative DSB rejoining mechanism that appears to be a manifestation of NHR. (+info)
Abnormalities at 14q32.1 in T cell malignancies involve two oncogenes.
The TCL1 oncogene on human chromosome 14q32.1 is involved in the development of T cell leukemia in humans. Its expression in these leukemias is activated by chromosomal translocations and inversions at 14q32.1. Here we report the isolation and characterization of a new member of the TCL1 gene family, TCL1b, located approximately 16 kb centromeric of TCL1. The 1.2-kb TCL1b cDNA encodes a 14-kDa protein of 128 aa and shows 60% similarity to Tcl1. Expression profiles of TCL1 and TCL1b genes are very similar: both genes are expressed at very low levels in normal bone marrow and peripheral lymphocytes but are activated in T cell leukemia by rearrangements of the 14q32.1 region. Thus, translocations and inversions at 14q32. 1 in T cell malignancies involve two oncogenes. (+info)
Multiple DNA binding activities of the novel site-specific recombinase, Piv, from Moraxella lacunata.
The recombinase, Piv, is essential for site-specific DNA inversion of the type IV pilin DNA segment in Moraxella lacunata and Moraxella bovis. Piv shows significant homology with the transposases of the IS110/IS492 family of insertion elements, but, surprisingly, Piv contains none of the conserved amino acid motifs of the lambda Int or Hin/Res families of site-specific recombinases. Therefore, Piv may mediate site-specific recombination by a novel mechanism. To begin to determine how Piv may assemble a synaptic nucleoprotein structure for DNA cleavage and strand exchange, we have characterized the interaction of Piv with the DNA inversion region of M. lacunata. Gel shift and nuclease/chemical protection assays, competition and dissociation rate analyses, and cooperativity studies indicate that Piv binds two distinct recognition sequences. One recognition sequence, found at multiple sites within and outside of the invertible segment, is bound by Piv protomers with high affinity. The second recognition sequence is located at the recombination cross-over sites at the ends of the invertible element; Piv interacts with this sequence as an oligomer with apparent low affinity. A model is proposed for the role of the different Piv binding sites of the M. lacunata inversion region in the formation of an active synaptosome. (+info)
The frequency and allelism of lethal chromosomes in isolated desert populations of Drosophila pseudoobscura.
Second-chromosome lethals were extracted from four populations of Drosophila pseudoobscura in Southern California. Two of the populations were from desert oases and two from the classic habitat on Mt. San Jacinto, previously studied by Dobzhansky. Allelism tests were made on the lethals within and between all locations. The frequency of lethal second-chromosomes in each location was 0.18, and this was not different from the results of other workers for samples throughout the species range. Interpopulational allelism rates were about 0.005, and not different from earlier results of Dobzhansky. Intrapopulational rates in this study were, with one exception, the same as the interpopulational rates, and significantly lower than Dobzhansky found using the third chromosome. This may be due to lethals being linked with heterotic third-chromosome inversions. The allelism rate of the exceptional population (about 0.03 and equal to Dobzhansky's intrapopulational results) may be due to heterotic lethals, or a founder effect. Two lethals were found in three populations each, possibly due to migration among these populations, which are up to 334 km apart. (+info)
Gene differences between third-chromosome inversions of Drosophila pseudobscura.
Associations of alleles of the acid phosphatase-3 locus with the different third-chromosome inversions from different populations of D. pseudoobscura are described. We observe only the allele AP-3(1.0) in the Standard and Arrowhead inversions and the allele AP-3.98 in the Santa Cruz, Treeline, Cuernavaca and the Pikes Peak arrangements. The Chiricahua gene arrangement is polymorphic. (+info)
A 189-bp repeat region within the human cytomegalovirus replication origin contains a sequence dispensable but irreplaceable with other sequences.
The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) replication origin exhibits a strain-dependent difference in the number of copies of a 189-bp region: the AD169 and Towne strains contain one and three copies of the region, respectively. A nearly complete deletion of the 189-bp repeat region of the Towne strain does not eliminate the origin's ability to initiate DNA synthesis. Here we report that the replication ability of the HCMV replication origin in infected cells disappeared after replacements of an internal sequence (152 bp) of the 189-bp repeat region with lambda DNA of identical and different lengths as well as after introduction of multiple nucleotide substitutions within the 152-bp internal sequence of the 189-bp repeat. In contrast, a variation in the copy number of 189-bp region (either one or two copies) or an inversion of the 152-bp internal sequence of the 189-bp repeat maintained replication abilities similar to those of the wild-type origin of the Towne strain. These results indicate that the 189-bp repeat region within the HCMV replication origin is not just a dispensable spacer sequence but instead contains an irreplaceable sequence that may play a supporting role in HCMV DNA replication. (+info)
Selective sweep at the Drosophila melanogaster Suppressor of Hairless locus and its association with the In(2L)t inversion polymorphism.
The hitchhiking model of population genetics predicts that an allele favored by Darwinian selection can replace haplotypes from the same locus previously established at a neutral mutation-drift equilibrium. This process, known as "selective sweep," was studied by comparing molecular variation between the polymorphic In(2L)t inversion and the standard chromosome. Sequence variation was recorded at the Suppressor of Hairless (Su[H]) gene in an African population of Drosophila melanogaster. We found 47 nucleotide polymorphisms among 20 sequences of 1.2 kb. Neutrality tests were nonsignificant at the nucleotide level. However, these sites were strongly associated, because 290 out of 741 observed pairwise combinations between them were in significant linkage disequilibrium. We found only seven haplotypes, two occurring in the 9 In(2L)t chromosomes, and five in the 11 standard chromosomes, with no shared haplotype. Two haplotypes, one in each chromosome arrangement, made up two-thirds of the sample. This low haplotype diversity departed from neutrality in a haplotype test. This pattern supports a selective sweep hypothesis for the Su(H) chromosome region. (+info)