(1/223) How many tumor suppressor genes are involved in human lung carcinogenesis?

To date, only a limited number of tumor suppressor genes have been identified as being inactivated in lung cancer. The p53 and RB genes are frequently inactivated by genetic alterations such as chromosomal deletions and loss-of-function mutations, while the p16 gene is inactivated not only by genetic alterations but also by transcriptional silencing due to hypermethylation. Recently, it was shown that the FHIT gene encompassing the chromosomal fragile site, FRA3B, is also inactivated in a large proportion of lung cancers. Several lines of evidence indicate the presence of additional tumor suppressor genes involved in lung carcinogenesis. Lung cancer cells often show deletions at multiple chromosomal regions, and deletion mapping studies have defined more than 30 regions dispersed on 21 different chromosome arms as candidate tumor suppressor loci. Several chromosomal regions hypermethylated in lung cancer cells and a number of chromosomal fragile sites have been mapped to the regions deleted in lung cancer. These chromosomal loci can harbor unknown tumor suppressor genes inactivated in lung cancer. Studies on the inherited susceptibility to lung cancer in mice have also indicated the presence of additional tumor suppressor genes for lung cancer. Further analyses of these loci should elucidate how many tumor suppressor genes are involved in human lung carcinogenesis. Molecular and functional analyses of those genes will make it possible to fully understand the molecular mechanism of lung carcinogenesis.  (+info)

(2/223) Type and frequency of chromosome aberrations in 781 couples undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

Cytogenetic investigations were performed in 781 couples prior to intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) because of severe male infertility or fertilization failures in previous in-vitro fertilization attempts. Out of these 1562 patients, 1012 had a normal karyotype without any aberrations (64.8%), 204 patients had an abnormal karyotypes (13.1%). These chromosome aberrations included constitutional aberrations (4.4%), fragile sites of autosomes (3.0%), low level mosaicism of sex chromosomes (4.0%) and secondary structural chromosome aberrations (4.2%). Combinations of different types of abnormalities were stated. Another 346 patients (22.1%) showed single cell aberrations; the significance of these is unclear at the moment. Constitutional chromosome aberrations were detected in 69 patients. The following chromosome aberrations were observed: 35 sex chromosomal aberrations (comprising hyperploidies of X or Y chromosomes, mosaicisms and derivative X and Y chromosomes), 34 autosomal aberrations including 14 reciprocal translocations, five Robertsonian translocations, six inversions, one marker chromosome, one trisomy 18 mosaicism and seven other structural aberrations. Three autosomal regions showed fragile sites: 6q13 in 2.9% of the patients, 17p12 and 10q24 in 0.05% each. In conclusion, our data show that a high number of infertile couples in an ICSI programme are affected by chromosome aberrations which occur in both sexes. It is suggested that a chromosomal analysis should be performed on both partners before ICSI treatment is initiated.  (+info)

(3/223) CGG/CCG repeats exhibit orientation-dependent instability and orientation-independent fragility in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

An expansion to >200 CGG/CCG repeats (hereafter called CGG) in the 5' region of the FMR1 gene causes fragile X syndrome, and this locus becomes a folate-sensitive fragile site. We used Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model system to study the stability and fragility of CGG repeats. Tracts of (CGG)(81)and (CGG)(160)were integrated onto a yeast chromosome in both orientations relative to the nearest replication origin. Tracts of this length are pre-mutation alleles in humans, with a high probability of expansion in future generations. The CGG tracts in yeast colonies showed a length-dependent instability with longer tracts being more prone to contraction than shorter tracts. In addition, there was an orientation bias for tract stability with tracts having fewer contractions when the CCG strand was the template for lagging strand synthesis. Expansions of the CGG tracts also occurred in an orientation-dependent manner, although at a lower frequency than contractions. To determine whether CGG tracts are fragile sites in yeast, the CGG tracts were flanked by direct repeats, and the rate of recombination between the repeats determined. Strains carrying the (CGG)(160)tract in either orientation had a large increase in their rate of recombination compared with a no-tract control strain. Because this increase was dependent on genes involved in double-strand break repair, recombination was likely to be initiated by CGG tract-induced breakage between the direct repeats. The observation of orientation-dependent instability and orientation-independent fragility suggests that at least some aspects of their underlying mechanisms are different.  (+info)

(4/223) Chromosomal fragile site FRA16D and DNA instability in cancer.

It has been proposed that common aphidicolin-inducible fragile sites, in general, predispose to specific chromosomal breakage associated with deletion, amplification, and/or translocation in certain forms of cancer. Although this appears to be the case for the fragile site FRA3B and may be the case for FRA7G, it is not yet clear whether this association is a general property of this class of fragile site. The major aim of the present study was to determine whether the FRA16D chromosomal fragile site locus has a role to play in predisposing DNA sequences within and adjacent to the fragile site to DNA instability (such as deletion or translocation), which could lead to or be associated with neoplasia. We report the localization of FRA16D within a contig of cloned DNA and demonstrate that this fragile site coincides with a region of homozygous deletion in a gastric adenocarcinoma cell line and is bracketed by translocation breakpoints in multiple myeloma, as reported previously (Chesi, M., et al., Blood, 91: 4457-4463, 1998). Therefore, given similar findings at the FRA3B and FRA7G fragile sites, it is likely that common aphidicolin-inducible fragile sites exhibit the general property of localized DNA instability in cancer cells.  (+info)

(5/223) A 700-kb physical map of a region of 16q23.2 homozygously deleted in multiple cancers and spanning the common fragile site FRA16D.

We have identified a >600-kb region at 16q23.2 that is homozygously deleted from malignant ovarian ascites using representational difference analysis. Overlapping homozygous deletions were also observed in the colon carcinoma cell line HCT116 and a xenograft established from the small cell lung cancer cell line WX330. This region coincides with that described previously by others as showing loss of heterozygosity in prostate and breast cancers (C. Li et al., Genes Chromosomes Cancer, 24: 175-182, 1999; A. Latil et al., Cancer Res., 57: 1058-1062, 1997; K. Driouch et al., Genes Chromosomes Cancer, 19: 185-191, 1997; A. Iida et al., Br. J. Cancer, 75: 264-267, 1997). In addition, the minimally deleted region spans the common fragile site FRA16D. We have constructed a 700-kb physical map encompassing the deleted region. By fluorescence in situ hybridization of aphidicolin-induced metaphase chromosomes, we have preliminary data to suggest that P1-derived bacterial artificial chromosome clones from the contig lie on both sides of FRA16D. This is confirmed by extensive fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of the region reported in the accompanying article (M. Mangelsdorf et al., Cancer Res., 60: 1683-1689, 2000) and is consistent with an involvement of this common fragile site in the loss of 16q23.2 material in various cancer types. The minimally deleted region of approximately 210 kb has been characterized using our own markers and public domain markers. Eleven distinct expressed sequences mapped to the region, providing a basis for identifying the predicted tumor suppressor gene in this region.  (+info)

(6/223) Definitive functional evidence for a tumor suppressor gene on human chromosome 7q31.1 neighboring the Fra7G site.

We have previously shown that loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on human chromosome (hchr) 7 at q31.1 is common in a variety of tumors of epithelial origin. Frequent LOH of a specific chromosomal marker is indicative of a closely linked tumor suppressor gene (TSG). However, recent reports have also indicated that such a high frequency of LOH could be due to the presence in this region of the second most common aphidicolin-inducible fragile site in the human genome (Fra7G). To address this controversy, we introduced single copies of hchr7 or hchr12 into a highly aggressive human prostate carcinoma cell line (PC3) by microcell-mediated transfer. The tumorigenicity of six clones of PC3/hchr7 hybrids and three clones of PCRhchr12 hybrids, obtained in four separate fusion experiments, were studied in BALB/c nude mice. All but one of the PC3/hchr7 hybrids increased tumor latency by at least twofold, whereas none of the PC3/hchr12 hybrids delayed tumor onset. No differences in the in vitro growth rate were observed among any of the cell lines assayed (parental and hybrids) suggesting that the observed tumor suppression was due to factors other than cell cycle regulation. Deletion mapping of the PC3/hchr7 tumors obtained after reversion to the malignant phenotype revealed a common region of loss centred around 7q31.1, supporting the TSG hypothesis. The smallest commonly deleted region was approximately 1.5 Mb in size and flanked by the markers D7S486 and D7S655.  (+info)

(7/223) Co-localisation of CCG repeats and chromosome deletion breakpoints in Jacobsen syndrome: evidence for a common mechanism of chromosome breakage.

Folate-sensitive fragile sites are associated with the expansion and hypermethylation of CCG-repeats. The fragile site in 11q23.3, FRA11B, has been shown to cause chromosome deletions in vivo, its expression being associated with Jacobsen (11q-) syndrome. However, the majority of Jacobsen deletions are distal to FRA11B and are not related to its expression. To test the hypothesis that other unidentified fragile sites might be located in 11q23.3-24 and may cause these deletions, we have identified and characterised CCG-trinucleotide repeats within a 40 Mb YAC contig spanning distal chromosome 11q. Only eight CCG-repeats were identified within the entire YAC contig (not including FRA11B ), six of which map to the region of 11q23.3-24 that includes Jacobsen deletions. We have previously collated the deletion mapping data of 24 Jacobsen patients with the physical map of chromosome 11q, and accurately localised six breakpoints to short intervals corresponding to individual YAC clones. We now show that in each of these cases, YAC clones found to contain a deletion breakpoint also contain a CCG-repeat. The improved analysis of one of these deletions, together with those of several new Jacobsen cases, further strengthens this association by localising five breakpoints to individual PAC clones containing CCG-repeats. These data provide strong evidence for the non-random clustering of chromosome deletion breakpoints with CCG-repeats, and suggests that they may play an important role in a common mechanism of chromosome breakage.  (+info)

(8/223) The expression of common fragile sites in peripheral blood lymphocytes of breast and colorectal cancer patients with aphidicolin.

The frequency and distribution of aphidicolin induced common fragile sites was evaluated on chromosomes of peripheral blood lymphocytes in 10 breast and 10 colorectal cancer patients, and 10 healthy controls to determine correlation between specific fragile sites and cancer breakpoints. Fifty complete metaphases were screened from each culture and the results were evaluated by Student's t-test. The total number of fragile sites was found as 933 in breast cancer patients, 950 in colorectal cancer patients and 501 in control group. Both the number of aberrations per cell and number of aberrations per damaged cell were significantly higher in the patient groups. These findings indicate that genetic instability in the breast and colorectal cancer patients increased and fragile sites may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of breast and colorectal cancer.  (+info)