(1/2254) Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and protein kinase C are required for the inhibition of caspase activity by epidermal growth factor.

The mechanism by which growth factors exert an anti-apoptotic function on many cell types is not well understood. This issue is addressed in relation to epidermal growth factor (EGF) which inhibits apoptosis induced by staurosporine or wortmannin in an epithelial tumour cell line (CNE-2). The presence of EGF substantially reduced the in vitro Ac-DEVD-AMC hydrolytic activity and almost completely suppressed the intracellular cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase in staurosporine- or wortmannin-treated cells. Staurosporine but not wortmannin caused the intracellular proteolytic processing of pro-caspase-3 and this event was transiently inhibited by EGF. Staurosporine-induced apoptosis was not inhibited by EGF in the presence of wortmannin or LY294002. Similarly, EGF failed to inhibit wortmannin-induced apoptosis in the presence of staurosporine, chelerythrine chloride or Go6850. These results suggest that phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and protein kinase C play a role in the survival function of EGF but the reduction of cellular caspase activity cannot be satisfactorily explained by a lack of pro-caspase-3 activation.  (+info)

(2/2254) CPCCOEt, a noncompetitive metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 antagonist, inhibits receptor signaling without affecting glutamate binding.

Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are a family of G protein-coupled receptors characterized by a large, extracellular N-terminal domain comprising the glutamate-binding site. In the current study, we examined the pharmacological profile and site of action of the non-amino-acid antagonist 7-hydroxyiminocyclopropan[b]chromen-1a-carboxylic acid ethyl ester (CPCCOEt). CPCCOEt selectively inhibited glutamate-induced increases in intracellular calcium at human mGluR1b (hmGluR1b) with an apparent IC50 of 6.5 microM while having no agonist or antagonist activity at hmGluR2, -4a, -5a, -7b, and -8a up to 100 microM. Schild analysis indicated that CPCCOEt acts in a noncompetitive manner by decreasing the efficacy of glutamate-stimulated phosphoinositide hydrolysis without affecting the EC50 value or Hill coefficient of glutamate. Similarly, CPCCOEt did not displace [3H]glutamate binding to membranes prepared from mGluR1a-expressing cells. To elucidate the site of action, we systematically exchanged segments and single amino acids between hmGluR1b and the related subtype, hmGluR5a. Substitution of Thr815 and Ala818, located at the extracellular surface of transmembrane segment VII, with the homologous amino acids of hmGluR5a eliminated CPCCOEt inhibition of hmGluR1b. In contrast, introduction of Thr815 and Ala818 at the homologous positions of hmGluR5a conferred complete inhibition by CPCCOEt (IC50 = 6.6 microM), i.e., a gain of function. These data suggest that CPCCOEt represents a novel class of G protein-coupled receptor antagonists inhibiting receptor signaling without affecting ligand binding. We propose that the interaction of CPCCOEt with Thr815 and Ala818 of mGluR1 disrupts receptor activation by inhibiting an intramolecular interaction between the agonist-bound extracellular domain and the transmembrane domain.  (+info)

(3/2254) Myogenic signaling of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase requires the serine-threonine kinase Akt/protein kinase B.

The oncogene p3k, coding for a constitutively active form of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase), strongly activates myogenic differentiation. Inhibition of endogenous PI 3-kinase activity with the specific inhibitor LY294002, or with dominant-negative mutants of PI 3-kinase, interferes with myotube formation and with the expression of muscle-specific proteins. Here we demonstrate that a downstream target of PI 3-kinase, serine-threonine kinase Akt, plays an important role in myogenic differentiation. Expression of constitutively active forms of Akt dramatically enhances myotube formation and expression of the muscle-specific proteins MyoD, creatine kinase, myosin heavy chain, and desmin. Transdominant negative forms of Akt inhibit myotube formation and the expression of muscle-specific proteins. The inhibition of myotube formation and the reduced expression of muscle-specific proteins caused by the PI 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 are completely reversed by constitutively active forms of Akt. Wild-type cellular Akt effects a partial reversal of LY294002-induced inhibition of myogenic differentiation. This result suggests that Akt can substitute for PI 3-kinase in the stimulation of myogenesis; Akt may be an essential downstream component of PI 3-kinase-induced muscle differentiation.  (+info)

(4/2254) Autophosphorylation of p110delta phosphoinositide 3-kinase: a new paradigm for the regulation of lipid kinases in vitro and in vivo.

Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) are lipid kinases which also possess an in vitro protein kinase activity towards themselves or their adaptor proteins. The physiological relevance of these phosphorylations is unclear at present. Here, the protein kinase activity of the tyrosine kinase-linked PI3K, p110delta, is characterized and its functional impact assessed. In vitro autophosphorylation of p110delta completely down-regulates its lipid kinase activity. The single site of autophosphorylation was mapped to Ser1039 at the C-terminus of p110delta. Antisera specific for phospho-Ser1039 revealed a very low level of phosphorylation of this residue in cell lines. However, p110delta that is recruited to activated receptors (such as CD28 in T cells) shows a time-dependent increase in Ser1039 phosphorylation and a concomitant decrease in associated lipid kinase activity. Treatment of cells with okadaic acid, an inhibitor of Ser/Thr phosphatases, also dramatically increases the level of Ser1039-phosphorylated p110delta. LY294002 and wortmannin blocked these in vivo increases in Ser1039 phosphorylation, consistent with the notion that PI3Ks, and possibly p110delta itself, are involved in the in vivo phosphorylation of p110delta. In summary, we show that PI3Ks are subject to regulatory phosphorylations in vivo similar to those identified under in vitro conditions, identifying a new level of control of these signalling molecules.  (+info)

(5/2254) Inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase induces nitric-oxide synthase in lipopolysaccharide- or cytokine-stimulated C6 glial cells.

Nitric oxide (NO) produced by inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS) in different cells including brain cells in response to proinflammatory cytokines plays an important role in the pathophysiology of demyelinating and neurodegenerative diseases. The present study underlines the importance of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) in the expression of iNOS in C6 glial cells and rat primary astrocytes. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) was unable to induce the expression of iNOS and the production of NO in rat C6 glial cells. Similarly, wortmannin and LY294002, compounds that inhibit PI 3-kinase, were also unable to induce the expression of iNOS and the production of NO. However, a combination of wortmannin or LY294002 with LPS or IL-1beta induced the expression of iNOS and the production of NO in C6 glial cells. Consistent with the induction of iNOS, wortmannin also induced iNOS promoter-derived chloramphenicol acetyltransferase activity in LPS- or IL-1beta-treated C6 glial cells. The expression of iNOS by LPS in C6 glial cells expressing a dominant-negative mutant of p85alpha, the regulatory subunit of PI 3-kinase, further supports the conclusion that inhibition of PI 3-kinase provides a necessary signal for the induction of iNOS. Next we examined the effect of wortmannin on the activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and nuclear factor NF-kappaB in LPS- or IL-1beta-stimulated C6 glial cells. In contrast to the inability of LPS and IL-1beta alone to induce the expression of iNOS, both LPS and IL-1beta individually stimulated MAP kinase activity and induced DNA binding and transcriptional activity of NF-kappaB. Wortmannin alone was unable to activate MAP kinase and NF-kappaB. Moreover, wortmannin had no effect on LPS- or IL-1beta-mediated activation of MAP kinase and NF-kappaB, suggesting that wortmannin induced the expression of iNOS in LPS- or IL-1beta-stimulated C6 glial cells without modulating the activation of MAP kinase and NF-kappaB. Similar to C6 glial cells, wortmannin also stimulated LPS-mediated expression of iNOS and production of NO in astrocytes without affecting the LPS-mediated activation of NF-kappaB. Taken together, the results from specific chemical inhibitors and dominant-negative mutant expression studies demonstrate that apart from the activation of NF-kappaB, inhibition of PI 3-kinase is also necessary for the expression of iNOS and production of NO.  (+info)

(6/2254) Anti-apoptotic signaling of the IGF-I receptor in fibroblasts following loss of matrix adhesion.

The type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-IR) is known to protect cells from a variety of apoptotic injuries. In several instances, the anti-apoptotic effect of the wild type IGF-IR is more evident under conditions of anchorage-independence than in cells in monolayer cultures. We have investigated IGF-IR signaling in cells in anoikis, a form of apoptosis that occurs when cells are denied attachment to the extra-cellular matrix. IGF-I protects mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEF) from anoikis caused by withdrawal of growth factors. Survival is dependent on the concentration of IGF-I and a sufficient number of functional IGF-I receptors. In this model, IGF-I protection correlates best with ras activation and cell-to-cell aggregation, while PI3-kinase, Akt and MAP kinases seem to play a lesser, alternative role.  (+info)

(7/2254) Insulin-like growth factor-1-mediated neuroprotection against oxidative stress is associated with activation of nuclear factor kappaB.

The role of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, has recently gained attention. The present study demonstrates that IGF-1 promotes the survival of rat primary cerebellar neurons and of immortalized hypothalamic rat GT1-7 cells after challenge with oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Neuroprotective concentrations of IGF-1 specifically induce the transcriptional activity and the DNA binding activity of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB), a transcription factor that has been suggested to play a neuroprotective role. This induction is associated with increased nuclear translocation of the p65 subunit of NF-kappaB and with degradation of the NF-kappaB inhibitory protein IkappaBalpha. IGF-1-mediated protection of GT1-7 cells against oxidative challenges was mimicked by overexpression of the NF-kappaB subunit c-Rel. Partial inhibition of NF-kappaB baseline activity by overexpression of a dominant-negative IkappaBalpha mutant enhanced the toxicity of H2O2 in GT1-7 cells. The pathway by which IGF-1 promotes neuronal survival and activation of NF-kappaB involves the phosphoinositol (PI) 3-kinase, because both effects of IGF-1 are blocked by LY294002 and wortmannin, two specific PI 3-kinase inhibitors. Taken together, our results provide evidence for a novel molecular link between IGF-1-mediated neuroprotection and induction of NF-kappaB that is dependent on the PI 3-kinase pathway.  (+info)

(8/2254) Requirement of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity for bradykinin stimulation of NF-kappaB activation in cultured human epithelial cells.

The signaling mechanisms utilized by bradykinin (BK) to activate the transcription factor nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) are poorly defined. We previously demonstrated that BK-stimulated NF-kappaB activation requires the small GTPase RhoA. We present evidence that BK-induced NF-kappaB activation both activates and requires phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) in A549 human epithelial cells. Pre-treatment with the PI 3-kinase-specific inhibitors, wortmannin, and LY294002 effectively blocked BK-induced PI 3-kinase activity. Wortmannin and LY294002 also abolished BK-induced NF-kappaB activation, as did transient transfection with a dominant negative mutant of the p85 subunit. BK-stimulated PI 3-kinase activity and NF-kappaB activation were sensitive to pertussis but not cholera toxin, suggesting that the B2 BK receptors transducing the response were coupled to Galphai or Galphao heterotrimeric G proteins. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) also stimulated increased PI 3-kinase activity, however TNFalpha-stimulated NF-kappaB activation was not affected by the PI 3-kinase inhibitors or the p85 dominant negative mutant. These findings provide evidence that BK-induced NF-kappaB activation utilizes a signaling pathway that requires activity of both RhoA and PI 3-kinase and is distinct from the signaling pathway utilized by TNFalpha. Furthermore, we show that the p85 regulatory subunit is required for activation of PI 3-kinase activity by this G protein-coupled receptor.  (+info)