Differential storage of prolactin, granins (Chromogranin B and secretogranin II), and constitutive secretory markers in rat pituitary GH4C1 cells. (49/53)

The rat pituitary cell line GH4C1 secretes granins (chromogranin B and secretogranin II) and prolactin by the regulated secretory pathway. The intracellular storage of prolactin is preferentially induced by hormone treatment with estradiol, insulin, and epidermal growth factor. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of hormone treatment on storage of granins and constitutive secretory markers. The granins were efficiently stored in both hormone-treated and -untreated cells (17% of total secreted in 4 h). Secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP), a truncated membrane protein that would not be expected to enter secretory granules, and glycosaminoglycan, a marker for the constitutive secretory pathway, exhibited 70 80% secretion under both conditions. In comparison, the relative prolactin secretion was 31 and 68% from hormone-treated and -untreated cells, respectively. Phorbol ester and KCl stimulated prolactin secretion 2.3-fold from untreated cells and 5. 5-fold from hormone-treated cells. In contrast, SEAP secretion was stimulated 1.5-fold from both treated and untreated cells, consistent with secretion by the constitutive secretory pathway. Stimulated secretion of granins was detected from both hormone-treated and -untreated cells. These results suggest that granin and prolactin storage are differentially regulated and that the constitutive secretory pathway is not affected by hormone treatment.  (+info)

Chromogranin B (secretogranin I) promotes sorting to the regulated secretory pathway of processing intermediates derived from a peptide hormone precursor. (50/53)

Chromogranin B (CgB, secretogranin I) is a widespread constituent of neuroendocrine secretory granules whose function is unknown. To determine whether CgB affects the sorting of peptide hormone and neuropeptide precursors to secretory granules, we overexpressed CgB in AtT-20 cells, which exhibit an only moderate capacity to sort proopiomelanocortin and proteolytic fragments derived therefrom. In mock-transfected AtT-20 cells, a substantial proportion of newly synthesized proopiomelanocortin and its two primary proteolytic products generated in the trans-Golgi network, the N-terminal 23-kDa fragment containing adrenocorticotropin and the C-terminal beta-lipotropin fragment, was secreted via the constitutive pathway. Two- to three-fold overexpression of CgB markedly reduced the constitutive secretion of the 23-kDa fragment, but not beta-lipotropin and tripled the amount of adrenocorticotropin generated and stored in secretory granules. Our results indicate the existence of neuroendocrine-specific helper proteins which promote the sorting from the trans-Golgi network to secretory granules of certain processing intermediates derived from peptide hormone and neuropeptide precursors and demonstrate that CgB functions as such.  (+info)

Pancreastatin secretion by pituitary adenomas and regulation of chromogranin B mRNA expression. (51/53)

Pancreastatin, a carboxyl-terminal amidated peptide derived from chromogranin (Cg)A, inhibits secretion of insulin and parathyroid hormone. Our recent studies found significant amounts of immunoreactive pancreastatin in all pituitary adenomas except prolactin adenomas. To analyze the effects of pancreastatin on pituitary cell function, 17 cultured pituitary adenomas were examined for immunoreactive pancreastatin and pancreastatin secretion by the tumors. The effects of pancreastatin on pituitary hormone secretion and on pituitary hormone (follicle-stimulating hormone and prolactin), CgA, and CgB mRNA levels were also examined. Immunoreactive pancreastatin and CgA were present diffusely in gonadotroph and null cell adenomas, but only a few prolactin adenoma cells expressed pancreastatin or CgA. When cells were treated with hypothalamic peptides, gonadotroph adenomas were the only group that released increased amounts of pancreastatin in response to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (10(-7) mol/L). Pancreastatin (10(-7) mol/L) treatment did not stimulate pituitary hormone secretion significantly. In situ hybridization analyses showed that gonadotropin-releasing hormone and pancreastatin treatment led to significant increases in CgB and follicle-stimulating hormone mRNAs in gonadotroph adenomas, whereas CgA mRNA levels did not change significantly. These results show that there is a differential distribution of pancreastatin secretion in pituitary adenomas and that the hypothalamic hormone gonadotropin-releasing hormone and the CgA-derived peptide pancreastatin can regulate CgB mRNA in gonadotroph adenomas, suggesting an autocrine effect of pancreastatin on pituitary tumor function.  (+info)

Essential role of the disulfide-bonded loop of chromogranin B for sorting to secretory granules is revealed by expression of a deletion mutant in the absence of endogenous granin synthesis. (52/53)

Sorting of regulated secretory proteins in the TGN to immature secretory granules (ISG) is thought to involve at least two steps: their selective aggregation and their interaction with membrane components destined to ISG. Here, we have investigated the sorting of chromogranin B (CgB), a member of the granin family present in the secretory granules of many endocrine cells and neurons. Specifically, we have studied the role of a candidate structural motif implicated in the sorting of CgB, the highly conserved NH2-terminal disulfide- bonded loop. Sorting to ISG of full-length human CgB and a deletion mutant of human CgB (Deltacys-hCgB) lacking the 22-amino acid residues comprising the disulfide-bonded loop was compared in the rat neuroendocrine cell line PC12. Upon transfection, i.e., with ongoing synthesis of endogenous granins, the sorting of the deletion mutant was only slightly impaired compared to full-length CgB. To investigate whether this sorting was due to coaggregation of the deletion mutant with endogenous granins, we expressed human CgB using recombinant vaccinia viruses, under conditions in which the synthesis of endogenous granins in the infected PC12 cells was shut off. In these conditions, Deltacys-hCgB, in contrast to full-length hCgB, was no longer sorted to ISG, but exited from the TGN in constitutive secretory vesicles. Coexpression of full-length hCgB together with Deltacys-hCgB by double infection, using the respective recombinant vaccinia viruses, rescued the sorting of the deletion mutant to ISG. In conclusion, our data show that (a) the disulfide-bonded loop is essential for sorting of CgB to ISG and (b) the lack of this structural motif can be compensated by coexpression of loop-bearing CgB. Furthermore, comparison of the two expression systems, transfection and vaccinia virus-mediated expression, reveals that analyses under conditions in which host cell secretory protein synthesis is blocked greatly facilitate the identification of sequence motifs required for sorting of regulated secretory proteins to secretory granules.  (+info)

Chromogranin B (secretogranin I), a neuroendocrine-regulated secretory protein, is sorted to exocrine secretory granules in transgenic mice. (53/53)

Chromogranin B (CgB, secretogranin I) is a secretory granule matrix protein expressed in a wide variety of endocrine cells and neurons. Here we generated transgenic mice expressing CgB under the control of the human cytomegalovirus promoter. Northern and immunoblot analyses, in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry revealed that the exocrine pancreas was the tissue with the highest level of ectopic CgB expression. Upon subcellular fractionation of the exocrine pancreas, the distribution of CgB in the various fractions was indistinguishable from that of amylase, an endogenous constituent of zymogen granules. Immunogold electron microscopy of pancreatic acinar cells showed co-localization of CgB with zymogens in Golgi cisternae, condensing vacuoles/immature granules and mature zymogen granules; the ratio of immunoreactivity of CgB to zymogens being highest in condensing vacuoles/immature granules. CgB isolated from zymogen granules of the pancreas of the transgenic mice aggregated in a mildly acidic (pH 5.5) milieu in vitro, suggesting that low pH-induced aggregation contributed to the observed concentration of CgB in condensing vacuoles. Our results show that a neuroendocrine-regulated secretory protein can be sorted to exocrine secretory granules in vivo, and imply that a key feature of CgB sorting in the trans-Golgi network of neuroendocrine cells, i.e. its aggregation-mediated concentration in the course of immature secretory granule formation, also occurs in exocrine cells although secretory protein sorting in these cells is thought to occur largely in the course of secretory granule maturation.  (+info)