Decreased cerebrospinal fluid secretogranin II concentrations in severe forms of bipolar disorder.
An antibody against secretogranin I (chromogranin B) is packaged into secretory granules.
(42/53)We have investigated the sorting and packaging of secretory proteins into secretory granules by an immunological approach. An mAb against secretogranin I (chromogranin B), a secretory protein costored with various peptide hormones and neuropeptides in secretory granules of many endocrine cells and neurons, was expressed by microinjection of its mRNA into the secretogranin I-producing cell line PC12. An mAb against the G protein of vesicular stomatitis virus--i.e., against an antigen not present in PC12 cells--was expressed as a control. The intracellular localization and the secretion of the antibodies was studied by double-labeling immunofluorescence using the conventional and the confocal microscope, as well as by pulse-chase experiments. The secretogranin I antibody, like the control antibody, was transported along the secretory pathway to the Golgi complex. However, in contrast to the control antibody, which was secreted via the constitutive pathway, the secretogranin I antibody formed an immunocomplex with secretogranin I, was packaged into secretory granules, and was released by regulated exocytosis. Our results show that a constitutive secretory protein, unaltered by genetic engineering, can be diverted to the regulated pathway of secretion by its protein-protein interaction with a regulated secretory protein. The data also provide the basis for immunologically studying the role of luminally exposed protein domains in the biogenesis and function of regulated secretory vesicles. (+info)
Distribution of chromogranin A and secretogranin I (chromogranin B) in neuroendocrine cells and tumors.
(43/53)The distribution of chromogranin A and secretogranin I (chromogranin B) in normal and neoplastic human endocrine tissues was analyzed with two human monoclonal antibodies against chromogranin A, anti-bovine antiserum against chromogranin A, and an anti-rat antiserum against secretogranin I. Western blotting analyses showed both chromogranin A and secretogranin I in normal adrenals, pheochromocytomas, a pituitary adenoma, and in normal pituitary glands, but not in a bladder carcinoma. Rat adrenal medullary and anterior pituitary tissues reacted with the polyclonal chromogranin A and secretogranin I antisera, but not with the two monoclonal chromogranin A antibodies. All antibodies reacted with most of the neuroendocrine cells and tumors examined. Pituitary prolactinomas contained immunoreactive secretogranin I, but not chromogranin A. Analysis of the distribution of chromogranin A and secretogranin I in pancreatic islet cells showed that chromogranin A was found predominantly in the glucagon-producing A cells, whereas secretogranin I was present in less than 5% of islet cells. These results indicate that chromogranin A and secretogranin I are both useful in the characterization of some neuroendocrine cells and neoplasms. (+info)
The primary structure of human secretogranin I (chromogranin B): comparison with chromogranin A reveals homologous terminal domains and a large intervening variable region.
(44/53)We have determined and analyzed the primary structure of human secretogranin I (chromogranin B), a tyrosine-sulfated secretory protein found in a wide variety of peptidergic endocrine cells. A 2.5-kb cDNA clone, hybridizing to an mRNA of similar length, was isolated from a cDNA library of human pheochromocytoma. The identity of the clone was established by comparison of its deduced amino acid sequence with N-terminal and several internal secretogranin I sequences as well as by immunoprecipitation of the protein produced by in vitro transcription-translation of the cloned cDNA. Secretogranin I is a 657 amino acid long polypeptide of 76 kd and is preceded by a cleaved N-terminal signal peptide of 20 residues. Comparison of the predicted amino acid sequence of human secretogranin I with that of bovine chromogranin A reveals significant homologies near the N termini and at the C termini. The N-terminal homologous domains contain the only two cysteine residues of both proteins and form disulfide-stabilized loop structures. The sequences between the homologous terminal domains in both proteins differ but are characterized by a remarkable hydrophilicity, an abundance of acidic amino acids and potential dibasic cleavage sites for the generation of smaller, perhaps hormone-like, peptides. (+info)
Chromogranin B (secretogranin I), a putative precursor of two novel pituitary peptides through processing at paired basic residues.
(45/53)During the course of reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) purification of the 7B2 peptide originally isolated in our laboratory from human pituitary gland extracts, two novel peptides were identified and purified to homogeneity. The complete amino acid sequence of the first one was established in 1985 and recently found to be entirely homologous to positions 420-493 of the just published chromogranin B sequence. This peptide, denoted GAWK, could originate from chromogranin B following specific cleavage at the basic amino acids flanking both termini of GAWK. Moreover, another peptide isolated in our laboratory from the same source and denoted CCB has been discovered and its sequence is also part of the same chromogranin B molecule. Here again, this peptide, occupying positions 597-653 and located at the COOH-terminal region of chromogranin B, could derive from specific processing at basic amino acids, Arg-Lys-Lys, present at positions 594-596. In a manner reminiscent of the relationship between pancreastatin and chromogranin A, it is proposed that both GAWK and CCB are produced from chromogranin B after specific processing at basic amino acids. These data are thus in favor of a putative role of chromogranins as precursors to potentially bioactive peptides. (+info)
Differential regulation of chromogranin B and synapsin I gene promoter activity by cAMP and cAMP-dependent protein kinase.
(46/53)cAMP has neutrotrophic effects in the nervous system. We have investigated whether there is a correlation between cAMP-induced neurite outgrowth and induction of chromogranin B and synapsin I gene expression. These genes encode marker proteins of distinct populations of vesicles in neurons, neuroendocrine and endocrine cells, and in addition, they contain a cAMP response element (CRE) in their upstream regions, making it likely that cAMP-induced neuronal differentiation might be accompanied by increased transcription of these genes. We increased intracellular cAMP levels in neuronal and neuroendocrine cells and analyzed the levels of chromogranin B and synapsin I mRNA. Our data revealed that, while chromogranin B mRNA was in fact induced following cAMP stimulation, synapsin I mRNA was not affected. To analyze the cis-acting sequences, we constructed hybrid genes containing the upstream region of the mouse chromogranin B gene fused to a reporter gene. Similar plasmids containing the synapsin I or the glucagon promoter were constructed. Transfections of neuronal and endocrine cells, together with deletion mutagenesis, revealed that the CRE of the chromogranin B gene mediated the effect of cAMP upon transcription. This effect was mimicked by overexpression of the catalytic subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase. In addition, overexpression of the negative-acting CRE-binding protein CREB-2 revealed that the chromogranin B CRE functions as a bifunctional genetic regulatory element in that it mediates basal as well as cAMP-stimulated transcription. Synapsin I gene expression, however, was not induced by either elevated intracellular cAMP concentration or by overexpression of protein kinase A, although a similar pattern of proteins, including CREB, bound to the synapsin I and chromogranin B CRE in vitro. Thus while the CRE element in the chromogranin B gene promoter is responsive to cAMP, the same element, when present in the synapsin I promoter, does not confer cAMP inducibility. (+info)
Processing of chromogranin B in bovine adrenal medulla. Identification of secretolytin, the endogenous C-terminal fragment of residues 614-626 with antibacterial activity.
(47/53)Chromogranins constitute a family of acidic soluble proteins widely distributed in endocrine cells and neurons. Chromogranin A, the major soluble component in bovine adrenal medullary secretory granules in chromaffin cells, has been shown to be actively processed to peptide fragments [Metz-Boutigue, M. H., Garcia-Sablone, P., Hogue-Angeletti, R. & Aunis, D. (1993) Eur. J. Biochem. 217, 247-257]. In the present paper, the structural features of the proteolytic degradation mechanism of chromogranin B/secretogranin I have been characterized with regard to the possible function of this protein as a precursor of biologically active peptides. Chromogranin-B-derived fragments present in bovine chromaffin granules were identified by microsequencing after separation by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis or high-performance liquid chromatography. A similar approach was performed to characterize chromogranin-B-derived fragments released into the extracellular space from depolarized bovine cultured chromaffin cells. In chromogranin B, 18 cleavage sites were identified along the protein chain and chromogranin B/secretogranin I fragments were generated by proteolytic attack at both the N-terminus and C-terminus. A major fragment corresponding to residues 614-626 of the C-terminal sequence, was identified in the extracellular space; this peptide was found to share sequence and structural similarities with the lytic domain of cecropins and, as expected from this similarity, to display potent antibacterial properties. Endogenous and synthetic peptides were active on Micrococus luteus, killing bacteria in the micromolar concentration range. The synthetic peptide slows the growth of Bacillus megaterium and was inactive towards Escherichia coli. In addition, the synthetic peptide was unable to induce hemolytic activity. This antibacterial function might be of biological significance in the neuroendocrine system of living organisms. We propose to name this peptide secretolytin. (+info)
Antibacterial activity of secretolytin, a chromogranin B-derived peptide (614-626), is correlated with peptide structure.
(48/53)Amongst the chromogranin B (CGB) derived fragments naturally generated in bovine chromaffin granules and detected in the extracellular space, we recently identified a major peptide corresponding to the 614-626 sequence of CGB. This peptide, named secretolytin, shared an interesting sequence homology with the lytic domain of cecropins and displayed a potent antibacterial activity. The aim of the present study was to determine the structural features of secretolytin necessary for this biological activity. Our results suggest that an alpha-helical amphipathic structure common to secretolytin, cecropins and pig myeloid antibacterial peptide may account for the antibacterial activity. (+info)