Initial orthopaedic displacement compared with longitudinal displacement of the maxilla after a forward force application. An experimental study in dogs. (1/236)

The aim of this study was to compare the initial orthopaedic displacement of the maxilla in vivo and the longitudinal changes after a forward force application. The sample consisted of five 1-year-old dogs. An anterior force of 5 N on the maxilla was applied by a coil spring system pushing between Branemark implants and a maxillary splint. The initial displacement of the maxilla after force application was measured by means of speckle interferometry. The longitudinal displacement of the maxilla after a force application during 8 weeks was measured by superimposing standardized lateral cephalograms. The initial, as well as the longitudinal, displacement of the maxilla of the dogs was in a forward direction with some counterclockwise rotation. There was no statistical difference between the initial and longitudinal displacement. The biological response after force application during 8 weeks can be predicted by the initial orthopaedic displacement.  (+info)

The fixation of the cemented femoral component. Effects of stem stiffness, cement thickness and roughness of the cement-bone surface. (2/236)

After cemented total hip arthroplasty (THA) there may be failure at either the cement-stem or the cement-bone interface. This results from the occurrence of abnormally high shear and compressive stresses within the cement and excessive relative micromovement. We therefore evaluated micromovement and stress at the cement-bone and cement-stem interfaces for a titanium and a chromium-cobalt stem. The behaviour of both implants was similar and no substantial differences were found in the size and distribution of micromovement on either interface with respect to the stiffness of the stem. Micromovement was minimal with a cement mantle 3 to 4 mm thick but then increased with greater thickness of the cement. Abnormally high micromovement occurred when the cement was thinner than 2 mm and the stem was made of titanium. The relative decrease in surface roughness augmented slipping but decreased debonding at the cement-bone interface. Shear stress at this site did not vary significantly for the different coefficients of cement-bone friction while compressive and hoop stresses within the cement increased slightly.  (+info)

Comparison of in vivo wear between polyethylene liners articulating with ceramic and cobalt-chrome femoral heads. (3/236)

At yearly intervals we compared the radiological wear characteristics of 81 alumina ceramic femoral heads with a well-matched group of 43 cobalt-chrome femoral heads. Using a computer-assisted measurement system we assessed two-dimensional penetration of the head into the polyethylene liner. We used linear regression analysis of temporal data of the penetration of the head to calculate the true rates of polyethylene wear for both groups. At a mean of seven years the true rate of wear of the ceramic group was slightly greater (0.09 mm/year, SD 0.07) than that of the cobalt-chrome group (0.07 mm/year, SD 0.04). Despite the numerous theoretical advantages of ceramic over cobalt-chrome femoral heads, the wear performance in vivo of these components was similar.  (+info)

Unusual indelible enamel staining following fixed appliance treatment. (4/236)

Two cases are described of indelible enamel staining following fixed appliance therapy. The acquired pigmentation occurred in patients with an identifiable enamel defect prior to treatment. The interaction of factors to cause the staining is discussed and it's prevention in future cases highlighted. Subsequent restoration of the affected teeth is shown.  (+info)

Influence of finishing on the electrochemical properties of dental alloys. (5/236)

Dental alloy surface finishing procedures of may influence their electrochemical behavior, which is used to evaluate their corrosion resistance. We examined the polarization resistance and potentiodynamic polarization profile of the precious-metal alloys, Type 4 gold alloy and silver-palladium alloy, and the base-metal alloys, nickel-chromium alloy, cobalt-chromium alloy, and CP-titanium. Three types of finishing procedure were examined: mirror-finishing using 0.05 micron alumina particles, polishing using #600 abrasive paper and sandblasting. Dissolution of the alloy elements in 0.9% NaCl solution was also measured and compared with the electrochemical evaluation. The corrosion resistance of the dental alloys was found to relate to finishing as follows: The polarization resistance and potentiodynamic polarization behavior revealed that the corrosion resistance improved in the order of sandblasting, #600-abrasive-paper polishing, and mirror-finishing. While the corrosion potential, critical current density and passive current density varied depending on the type of finishing, the transpassive potential remained unchanged. The influence of finishing on the corrosion resistance of precious-metal alloys was less significant than on that of base-metal alloys. A mirror-finishing specimen was recommended for use in evaluation of the corrosion resistance of various dental alloys.  (+info)

Effect of the adhesive layer thickness on the fracture toughness of dental adhesive resins. (6/236)

We investigated how the thickness of an adhesive layer between two Co-Cr alloy plates affected the mode I fracture toughness of dental adhesive resin by varying the type of resin using a double cantilever beam (DCB) test. Two typical adhesive resins (PV and SB) were used. The adhesive layers of the DCB test specimens were 20, 100 and 200 microns thick. The fracture modes of PV differed with the thickness of the adhesive layer, such as interface fracture at 20 microns thickness, and similar cohesive fracture at 100 and 200 microns thickness. In the case of SB, crack-propagating areas were observed as cohesive fractures in all test specimens with different adhesive layer thickness, and the surfaces of these areas became remarkably rougher as the thickness of the adhesive layer increased. The fracture toughness of PV was not affected by the differences in thickness between the 100 and 200 microns adhesive layers, but there was a notable decrease in fracture toughness when the adhesive layer decreased to a thickness of 20 microns. That of SB showed a tendency to increase as the adhesive layer became thicker.  (+info)

The laser welding technique applied to the non precious dental alloys procedure and results. (7/236)

AIM: The laser welding technique was chosen for its versatility in the repair of dental metal prosthesis. The aim of this research is to assess the accuracy, quality and reproducibility of this technique as applied to Ni-Cr-Mo and Cr-Co-Mo alloys often used to make prosthesis METHOD: The alloy's ability to weld was evaluated with a pulsed Nd-Yag Laser equipment. In order to evaluate the joining, various cast wires with different diameters were used. The efficiency of the joining was measured with tensile tests. In order to understand this difference, metallographic examinations and X-Ray microprobe analysis were performed through the welded area and compared with the cast part. RESULTS: It was found that a very slight change in the chemistry of the Ni-Cr alloys had a strong influence on the quality of the joining. The Co-Cr alloy presented an excellent weldability. A very important change in the microstructure due to the effect of the laser was pointed out in the welding zone, increasing its micro-hardness. CONCLUSION: The higher level of carbon and boron in one of the two Ni-Cr was found to be responsible for its poor welding ability. However for the others, the maximum depth of welding was found to be around 2mm which is one of the usual thicknesses of the components which have to be repaired.  (+info)

Influence of polyethylene and femoral head surface quality on wear: a retrieval study. (8/236)

Thirty-two polyethylene sockets and 22 femoral heads were retrieved because of aseptic loosening more than 9 years after total hip arthroplasty. The volumetric wear rates of the retrieved polyethylene sockets were significantly greater in those coupled with an alumina head (P < 0.05). The retrieved alumina heads showed significantly better surface roughness and roundness than heads of Co-Cr and of stainless steel (P < 0.05). However, no significant difference was found in polyethylene quality demonstrated as fusion defects among the three different groups. The present study suggests that maintaining better surface roughness and roundness of the femoral heads does not always result in an in vivo reduction of polyethylene wear.  (+info)