Determination of the anomeric configurations of Corbicula ceramide di- and trihexoside by chromium trioxide oxidation.
The anomeric configurations of Corbicula ceramide dihexoside and ceramide trihexoside were determined by chromium trioxide oxidation and the structures of these lipids were shown to be Man-beta(1 leads to 4)-Glc-beta(1 leads to 1)-ceramide and Man-alpha(1 leads to 4)-Man-beta(1 leads to 4)-Glc-beta(1 leads to 1)-ceramide. These results are compatible with those obtained by enzymic hydrolysis reported previously. (+info)
A simple hydroponic culture method for the development of a highly viable root system in Arabidopsis thaliana.
In the studies of nutritional absorption and metal toxicity in the root, it is important to grow plants without technical damage. We established a simple hydroponic culture system for Arabidopsis thaliana to obtain a healthy plant having a well-developed root system with many lateral roots. The phytotoxic effects of Cr, Cu, and Al ions were examined by FDA-PI staining using this culture system. The pattern of root inhibition varied with the ion, suggesting the usefulness of this culture system. (+info)
Hexavalent chromium responsible for lung lesions induced by intratracheal instillation of chromium fumes in rats.
Lung toxicity of chromium fumes (Cr fumes) was examined by a single intratracheal instillation into rats of 10.6 mg and 21.3 mg Cr fumes/kg body weight and by repeated (3 times) instillations of 10.8 mg and 21.7 mg Cr fumes/kg. The pathological changes were compared with those induced by single administrations of 3.2 mg and 19.2 mg Na2CO3 solution-insoluble fraction of Cr fumes (Cr-Fr)/kg and 20.8 mg commercially available chromium (III) oxide powder (Cr (III) oxide)/kg. Single and repeated administrations of Cr fumes suppressed growth rate in a dose-dependent manner, but administrations of Cr-Fr and Cr (III) oxide did not. A single administration of Cr fumes produced granulomas in the entire airways and alveoli with progressive fibrotic changes, as well as severe mobilization and destruction of macrophages and foamy cells. Those histopathological changes were aggravated by the repeated administration of Cr fumes. On the other hand, single administrations of Cr-Fr and Cr (III) oxide produced no remarkable histopathological changes. Cr fumes were found to be composed of 73.5% chromium (III) oxide and 26.5% chromium (VI) oxide. The primary particles of Cr fumes and Cr-Fr were similar, 0.02 micron in size (sigma g: 1.25), and Cr (III) oxide particles were 0.30 micron in size (sigma g: 1.53), measured by analytical electron microscopy (ATEM). Diffuse clusters of the primary particles in Cr fumes were identified as Cr (VI) oxide. The present results suggested that the lung toxicity of Cr fumes was mainly caused by these Cr (VI) oxide (CrO3) particles in Cr fumes. (+info)
Contribution of endogenous carbon monoxide to regulation of diameter in resistance vessels.
Endogenous carbon monoxide was proposed to subserve vasodepressor functions. If so, inhibition of heme oxygenase may be expected to promote vascular contraction. This hypothesis was examined in large and small arteries and in isolated first-order gracilis muscle arterioles of rat. The heme oxygenase inhibitors chromium mesoporphyrin (CrMP) and cobalt protoporphyrin (0.175-102 micromol/l) decreased the diameter of pressurized (80 mmHg) gracilis muscle arterioles, whereas magnesium protoporphyrin, a weak heme oxygenase inhibitor, did not. CrMP also elicited development of isometric tension in the muscular branch of the femoral artery but not in the aorta or femoral artery. Arteriolar constrictor responses to CrMP varied in relation to the intravascular pressure, were blunted in preparations exposed to exogenous carbon monoxide (100 micromol/l), and were unaffected by an endothelin receptor antagonist. Importantly, CrMP amplified the constrictor response to increases of pressure in gracilis arterioles. Accordingly, the constrictor effect of heme oxygenase inhibitors is attributable to magnification of myogenic tone due to withdrawal of a vasodilatory mechanism mediated by endogenous carbon monoxide. The study suggests that the vascular carbon monoxide system plays a role in the regulation of basal tone in resistance vessels. (+info)
Oxidative damage of DNA by chromium(V) complexes: relative importance of base versus sugar oxidation.
Chromium(V)-mediated oxidative damage of deoxy-ribonucleic acids was investigated at neutral pH in aqueous solution by utilizing bis(2-ethyl-2-hydroxy-butanato)oxochromate(V) (I) and bis(hydroxyethyl)-amino-tris(hydroxymethyl)methane)oxochromate(V) (II). Single-stranded and double-stranded (ds) calf thymus and human placenta DNA, as well as two oligomers, 5'-GATCTAGTAGGAGGACAAATAGTGTTTG-3' and 5'-GATCCAAGCAAACACTATTTGTCCTCCTACTA-3', were reacted with the chromium(V) complexes. Most products were separated and characterized by chroma-tographic and spectroscopic methods. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis experiments reveal more damage at G sites in comparison to other bases. Three primary oxidation products, 5-methylene-2-furanone (5-MF), furfural and 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine, were characterized. A minor product, which appears to be thymine propenal, was also observed. The dsDNA produces more furfural than furanone. The formation of these two products resulted from hydrogen ion or hydride transfer from C1' and C5' positions of the ribose to the oxo-chromium(V) center. Since no enhancements of these products (except propenal) were observed in the presence of oxygen, mechanisms pertaining to the participation of activated oxygen species may be ruled out. The oxidation of the G base is most likely associated with an oxygen atom transfer from the oxo-metallates to the double bond between C8 and N7 of the purine ring. The formation of the propenal may be associated with an oxygen-activated species, since a marginal enhancement of this product was observed in the presence of oxygen. The formation of furfural in higher abundance over 5-MF for dsDNA was attributed to the ease of hydrogen ion (or hydride transfer) from the C5' compared to C1' position of the ribose within a Cr(V)-DNA intermediate in which the metal center is bound to the phosphate diester moiety. (+info)
Carbon monoxide and cerebral microvascular tone in newborn pigs.
The present study addresses the hypothesis that CO produced from endogenous heme oxygenase (HO) can dilate newborn cerebral arterioles. HO-2 protein was highly expressed in large and small blood vessels, as well as parenchyma, of newborn pig cerebrum. Topically applied CO dose-dependently dilated piglet pial arterioles in vivo over the range 10(-11)-10(-9) M (maximal response). CO-induced cerebrovascular dilation was abolished by treatment with the Ca2+-activated K+ channel inhibitors tetraethylammonium chloride and iberiotoxin. The HO substrate heme-L-lysinate also produced tetraethylammonium-inhibitable, dose-dependent dilation from 5 x 10(-8) to 5 x 10(-7) M (maximal). The HO inhibitor chromium mesoporphyrin blocked dilation of pial arterioles in response to heme-L-lysinate. In addition to inhibiting dilation to heme-L-lysinate, chromium mesoporphyrin also blocked pial arteriolar dilations in response to hypoxia but did not alter responses to hypercapnia or isoproterenol. We conclude that CO dilates pial arterioles via activation of Ca2+-activated K+ channels and that endogenous HO-2 potentially can produce sufficient CO to produce the dilation. (+info)
Dietary protein and chromium tripicolinate in Suffolk wether lambs: effects on production characteristics, metabolic and hormonal responses, and immune status.
Thirty-two Suffolk wether lambs were fed for 84 d in a 2 x 2 factorial experiment using two levels of dietary protein (9.0 to 12.1% CP, low protein, LP; or 12.8 to 14.4% CP, high protein, HP) and supplemental Cr (none, C; or 400 ppb Cr as chromium tripicolinate, Cr). At 14- to 21-d intervals, lambs were weighed, and jugular blood samples were collected. Mean ADG and carcass weight (P > .10) did not differ. In lambs fed HP, Cr reduced liver weight and increased kidney weight (P < .01). Lambs fed HP had elevated plasma urea N (PUN; P < .01) and albumin (P < .04). During an i.v. epinephrine challenge on d 43, plasma cortisol declined in lambs fed Cr (Cr x time, P < .03) and in lambs fed LP (CP x time, P < .001). An i.v. glucose tolerance test conducted 3 h later showed that supplemental Cr decreased glucose clearance rate in lambs fed HP (CP x Cr, P < .10) but not in lambs fed LP. On d 62, PUN was increased in lambs fed HP (P < .001) between 0 and 3 h postprandial, and there was a Cr x CP interaction (P < .04). Postprandial plasma NEFA declined with Cr vs C (Cr x time, P < .07) and with HP vs LP (CP x time, P < .10). By d 66, lambs fed Cr had an elevated (P < .03) blood platelet and fibrinogen content. Chromium increased erythrocyte count in lambs fed HP (Cr x CP, P < .08), and isolated peripheral lymphocytes had greater blastogenic response to 4 microg/mL of phytohemagglutinin (Cr x CP, P < .001). The lymphocyte response to pokeweed mitogen (.2 microg/mL) was reduced in lambs fed Cr (P < .10). In the present experiment, Cr supplementation had minimal and inconsistent effects on production and metabolic criteria of lambs. (+info)
Hydroxopentaamminechromium(III) promoted phosphorylation of bovine serum albumin: its potential implications in understanding biotoxicity of chromium.
Evidence for chromium(III) induced phosphorylation of a biomarker protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) is presented. Radiolabelled adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) was reacted with BSA in the presence of various Cr(III) salts. While [Cr(NH3)5(H2O)]3+ brought about phosphorylation of BSA, several Cr(III) complexes, viz. [Cr(bpy)3]3+, [Cr(phen)3]3+, [Cr(en)3]3+, [Cr(salen)(H2O)2]+ and [Cr(salprn)(H2O)2]+, did not phosphorylate BSA. The Cr(III) mediated the transfer of gamma- and alpha-phosphates but not the adenine and the sugar moieties of the ATP molecule to BSA. The observed stoichiometry was 0.75 mol Pi to mol BSA for the gamma-phosphate and 0.5 mol Pi to mol BSA for the alpha-phosphate of ATP. The presence of serine phosphate and threonine phosphate was detected in the hydrolysate of phosphorylated BSA by means of comparison of Rf values with authentic samples of phosphoserine and phosphothreonine after chromatographic separation and autoradiography. [Cr(NH3)5(H2O)]3+ at pH 7.4 is known to exist as the conjugate base [Cr(NH3)5(OH)]2+ and is capable of ligand substitution involving metal-oxygen bond retention. Such anation reaction of [Cr(NH3)5(OH)]2+ with ATP subsequently leads to the esterification of alcoholic hydroxyl groups of serine and threonine of BSA. Possible consequences of chromium(III) induced in vivo phosphorylation of proteins are discussed. (+info)