Characterization of a neutrophil cell surface glycosaminoglycan that mediates binding of platelet factor 4.
Platelet factor 4 (PF-4) is a platelet-derived alpha-chemokine that binds to and activates human neutrophils to undergo specific functions like exocytosis or adhesion. PF-4 binding has been shown to be independent of interleukin-8 receptors and could be inhibited by soluble chondroitin sulfate type glycosaminoglycans or by pretreatment of cells with chondroitinase ABC. Here we present evidence that surface-expressed neutrophil glycosaminoglycans are of chondroitin sulfate type and that this species binds to the tetrameric form of PF-4. The glycosaminoglycans consist of a single type of chain with an average molecular mass of approximately 23 kDa and are composed of approximately 85-90% chondroitin 4-sulfate disaccharide units type CSA (-->4GlcAbeta1-->3GalNAc(4-O-sulfate)beta1-->) and of approximately 10-15% di-O-sulfated disaccharide units. A major part of these di-O-sulfated disaccharide units are CSE units (-->4GlcAbeta1-->3GalNAc(4,6-O-sulfate)beta1-->). Binding studies revealed that the interaction of chondroitin sulfate with PF-4 required at least 20 monosaccharide units for significant binding. The di-O-sulfated disaccharide units in neutrophil glycosaminoglycans clearly promoted the affinity to PF-4, which showed a Kd approximately 0.8 microM, as the affinities of bovine cartilage chondroitin sulfate A, porcine skin dermatan sulfate, or bovine cartilage chondroitin sulfate C, all consisting exclusively of monosulfated disaccharide units, were found to be 3-5-fold lower. Taken together, our data indicate that chondroitin sulfate chains function as physiologically relevant binding sites for PF-4 on neutrophils and that the affinity of these chains for PF-4 is controlled by their degree of sulfation. (+info)
Structural features and anticoagulant activities of a novel natural low molecular weight heparin from the shrimp Penaeus brasiliensis.
A natural low molecular weight heparin (8.5 kDa), with an anticoagulant activity of 95 IU/mg by the USP assay, was isolated from the shrimp Penaeus brasiliensis. The crustacean heparin was susceptible to both heparinase and heparitinase II from Flavobacterium heparinum forming tri- and di-sulfated disaccharides as the mammalian heparins. (13)C and (1)H NMR spectroscopy revealed that the shrimp heparin was enriched in both glucuronic and non-sulfated iduronic acid residues. The in vitro anticlotting activities in different steps of the coagulation cascade have shown that its anticoagulant action is mainly exerted through the inhibition of factor Xa and heparin cofactor II-mediated inhibition of thrombin. The shrimp heparin has also a potent in vivo antithrombotic activity comparable to the mammalian low molecular weight heparins. (+info)
Stereochemical course and steady state mechanism of the reaction catalyzed by the GDP-fucose synthetase from Escherichia coli.
Recently the genes encoding the human and Escherichia coli GDP-mannose dehydratase and GDP-fucose synthetase (GFS) protein have been cloned and it has been shown that these two proteins alone are sufficient to convert GDP mannose to GDP fucose in vitro. GDP-fucose synthetase from E. coli is a novel dual function enzyme in that it catalyzes epimerizations and a reduction reaction at the same active site. This aspect separates fucose biosynthesis from that of other deoxy and dideoxy sugars in which the epimerase and reductase activities are present on separate enzymes encoded by separate genes. By NMR spectroscopy we have shown that GFS catalyzes the stereospecific hydride transfer of the ProS hydrogen from NADPH to carbon 4 of the mannose sugar. This is consistent with the stereospecificity observed for other members of the short chain dehydrogenase reductase family of enzymes of which GFS is a member. Additionally the enzyme is able to catalyze the epimerization reaction in the absence of NADP or NADPH. The kinetic mechanism of GFS as determined by product inhibition and fluorescence binding studies is consistent with a random mechanism. The dissociation constants determined from fluorescence studies indicate that the enzyme displays a 40-fold stronger affinity for the substrate NADPH as compared with the product NADP and utilizes NADPH preferentially as compared with NADH. This study on GFS, a unique member of the short chain dehydrogenase reductase family, coupled with that of its recently published crystal structure should aid in the development of antimicrobial or anti-inflammatory compounds that act by blocking selectin-mediated cell adhesion. (+info)
Sensitive assay for mitochondrial DNA polymerase gamma.
BACKGROUND: The mitochondrial DNA polymerase gamma is the principal polymerase required for mitochondrial DNA replication. Primary or secondary deficiencies in the activity of DNA polymerase gamma may lead to mitochondrial DNA depletion. We describe a sensitive and robust clinical assay for this enzyme. METHODS: The assay was performed on mitochondria isolated from skeletal muscle biopsies. High-molecular weight polynucleotide reaction products were captured on ion-exchange paper, examined qualitatively by autoradiography, and quantified by scintillation counting. RESULTS: Kinetic analysis of DNA polymerase gamma by this method showed a K(m) for dTTP of 1.43 micromol/L and a K(i) for azidothymidine triphosphate of 0.861 micromol/L. The assay was linear from 0.1 to 2 microgram of mitochondrial protein. The detection limit was 30 units (30 fmol dTMP incorporated in 30 min). The linear dynamic range was three orders of magnitude; 30-30 000 units. Imprecision (CV) was 6.4% within day and 12% between days. Application of this assay to a mixed population of 38 patients referred for evaluation of mitochondrial disease revealed a distribution with a range of 0-2506 U/microgram, reflecting extensive biologic variation among patients with neuromuscular disease. CONCLUSION: This assay provides a useful adjunct to current laboratory methods for the evaluation of patients with suspected mitochondrial DNA depletion syndromes. (+info)
Localization of the IgG effector site for monocyte receptors.
A peptide consisting of 10 amino acids derived from the CH3 region of human IgG was shown to bind to monocytes and to inhibit rosette formation of antibody-coated erythrocytes with human monocytes. Two myeloma proteins of the IgG1 and IgG3 subclass, both with known deletions in the CH2 region of the gamma chain, showed unimpaired ability to bind to monocytes. These experiments suggest that the isolated peptide represents the primary site of attachment of IgG to monocytes. (+info)
In yeast the export of small glycopeptides from the endoplasmic reticulum into the cytosol is not affected by the structure of their oligosaccharide chains.
A "quality control" system associated with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that discriminates between misfolded proteins and correctly folded proteins is present in a variety of eukaryotic cells, including yeast. Recently, it has been shown that misfolded proteins that are N -glycosylated in the lumen of the ER are transported out of the ER, de-N-glycosylated by a soluble peptide: N -glycanase (PNGase) and degraded by action of the proteasome. It also has been shown that small N -glycosylatable peptides follow a fate similar to that of misfolded proteins, i.e., glycosylation in the lumen of the ER, transport out of the ER, and de- N -glycosylation in the cytosol. These processes of retrograde glycopeptide transport and de- N -glycosylation have been observed in mammalian cells, as well as in yeast cells. However, little is known about the mechanism involved in the movement of glycopeptides from the ER to the cytosol. Here we report a simple method for assaying N -glycosylation/de- N -glycosylation by simple paper chromatographic and electrophoretic techniques using an N -glycosylatable(3)H-labeled tripeptide as a substrate. With this method, we confirmed the cytosolic localization of the de- N -glycosylated peptide, which supports the idea that de- N -glycosylation occurs after the export of the glycopeptide from the lumen of the ER to the cytosol. Further, we found that the variations in the structure of the oligosaccharide chain on the glycopeptide did not cause differences in the export of the glycopeptide. This finding suggests that the mechanism for the export of small glycopeptides may differ from that of misfolded (glyco)proteins. (+info)
Elaboration of pyrimidine-specific nucleosidases by human lymphoblastoid cells of established cultures.
Pyrimidine-specific nucleosidases were released rapidly by human lymphoblastoid cells of established cultures when incubated under certain culture conditions having no adverse affect on their viability or morphology. Nucleosidase production was not restricted to any particular type of lymphoblastoid line; enzymes with a high level of activity were elaborated by cells of cultures initiated from healthy subjects and patients with uncontrolled lymphocytic or myelocytic leukemia, as well as by cells of cultures exhibiting mostly B- or T-cell properties. Tritiated thymine and uracil, which were not incorporated to any appreciable extent by DNA- and RNA-synthesizing cells, were identified by paper chromatography as the primary products arising from nucleosidase degradation of radiolabeled thymidine, uridine, and cytidine. Neither adenosine nor guanosine was catabolized. These heat-labile and ultraviolet-sensitive enzymes with a molecular weight of 5 to 10 X 10(4) did not affect the viability, morphology, or proliferation of lymphocytes in mitogenactivated cultures, lymphoblastoid cells in long-term cultures, or fibroblasts in monolayer cultures. (+info)
Covalent linkage of polyamines to peptidoglycan in Anaerovibrio lipolytica.
Spermidine and cadaverine were found to be constituents of the cell wall peptidoglycan of Anaerovibrio lipolytica, a strictly anaerobic bacterium. The peptidoglycan was degraded with the N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanine amidase and endopeptidase into two peptide fragments, peptide I and peptide II, at a molar ratio of 4:1. Peptides I and II were identified as L-alanine-D-glutamic acid(alphacadaverine)gammameso-diaminopimelic acid (DAP)-D-alanine and L-alanine-D-glutamic acid(alphaspermidine)gammameso-DAP-D-alanine, respectively. The N(1)-amino group of spermidine was linked to the alpha-carboxyl group of the D-glutamic acid residue of peptide II. (+info)