The gas-liquid chromatograph and the electron capture detection in equine drug testing.
Three gas-liquid chromatographic (G.L.C.) procedures discussed have been designed around the four "esses" of detection tests--speed, sensitivity, simplicity, and specificity. These techniques are admirably applicable to the very low plasma drug levels encountered in blood testing under pre-race conditions. The methods are equally applicable to post-race testing procedures, where both blood and urine samples are tested. Drugs can only rarely be detected by the electron capture detector (E.C.D.) without a prior derivatization step, which conveys to the drug(s) high electron affinity. Because of broad applicability, two derivatizing agents, heptafluorobutyric (HFBA) and pentafluorpropionic (PFPA) anhydrides are employed. The three techniques, allowing broad coverage of various drug classes are: 1) direct derivatization of drugs to form strongly electron capturing amides and esters. 2) reductive fragmentation of drugs with lithium aluminum hydride to form alcohols, with conversion to ester derivatives. 3) oxidative fragmentation of drugs with potassium dichromate to form derivatizable groups, followed by direct derivatization. (+info)
Research and identification of tranquillizers - use of retention index.
At the request of the Service des Haras, our laboratory works on the toxicological problems of the sport-horse. These studies have resulted in the setting up of an anti-doping control for equestrian competitions of various types, not only flat racing. During events, horses, must be calm and docile to the riders' order. Frequently, the latter use tranquillizers to try and win events. The analytical method for the research and identification of these compounds is described. The technique involves successively: 1. alkalinisation of the sample - saliva, blood or urine after enzymatic hydrolysis. 2. extraction with diethyl ether - the recovery is 70% to 90% depending upon the drug. 3. determination by gas-liquid chromatography with use of a retention index for qualitative analysis. We can detect up to fifteen tranquillizers in any one sample, even when present at such low concentrations as found in saliva. The use of the retention index is a reliable method for qualitative analysis. For example, the method has been used for three years, during which period the rentention index of acetylpromazine remained at 3240 +/- 7. The chromatographic analysis was performed on 3% OV-17 at 290 degrees. The chromatographic analysis has been performed by three columns of different polarity (OV-1; OV-17; SP-2250). If on the three columns, the retention index of one peak is the same as that of the tranquilizer, a further confirmation is made with the use of a thermionic detector specific for nitrogenous drugs. In conclusion, this method which is sufficiently precise and specific has been used for anti-doping control. (+info)
Less common "doping" agents and substances encountered during routine screening for drugs.
The chromatographic and spectroscopic properties of several unusual substances which have been detected in the "alkaloidal" chloroform extract from racehorse urine and saliva samples are reported. Some of these substances have been identified by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and the source of the substance is stated where this is known. Other substances whose identity is not known have been detected and their mass spectra show characteristic amine fragments. The occurrence of these unidentified substances is more frequent in aged urine samples and it would therefore appear that they are associated with putrefaction. (+info)
Solid-phase microextraction and GC-ECD of benzophenones for detection of benzodiazepines in urine.
Benzodiazepines are common drugs that cause intoxication. Benzodiazepines and their metabolites can be converted by hydrolysis in acid to the corresponding benzophenones, which are easier to be separated from matrices because of their hydrophobic properties. In this study, a new separation technique called solid-phase microextraction (SPME), which can integrate extraction, concentration, sampling and sample introduction into one single procedure, has been employed to extract the products of benzodiazepines from urine after acid hydrolysis. The extracts were determined by gas chromatography with electron-capture detection (GC-ECD). The hydrolysis conditions were optimized by a statistic orthogonal design. Factors influencing direct-immersion (DI)-SPME process were also checked and chosen experimentally. The method was evaluated with spiked human urine samples. The recoveries of nine benzodiazepines ranged from 1 to 25%, with the highest for oxazolam and the lowest for bromazepam. The calibration curves were linear from 10 to 500 ng/mL for oxazolam, haloxazolam, flunitrazepam, nimetazepam, and clonazepam and from 20 to 1000 ng/mL for the others except bromazepam. The detection limits were 2-20 ng/mL for most drugs tested. The intraday and interday coefficients of variation of the developed method were within 10 and 17%, respectively. In addition, the utility of the method was confirmed by determining two ingested benzodiazepines (flunitrazepam and oxazolam) in a volunteer's urine; urine flunitrazepam was still detectable 32 h after a therapeutic dose (1.2 mg) of the drug. Finally, the DI-SPME was compared with the conventional liquid-liquid extraction with regard to detection limits and extraction efficiency of the analytes. By DI-SPME, more amounts of analytes could be introduced into GC column than by conventional liquid-liquid extraction, and thus lower detection limits of the analytes were reached, although benzophenone recoveries by DI-SPME were rather low. (+info)
Gas-liquid chromatography of the heptafluorobutyrate derivatives of the O-methyl-glycosides on capillary columns: a method for the quantitative determination of the monosaccharide composition of glycoproteins and glycolipids.
We have developed a method involving the formation of hepta-fluorobutyrate derivatives of O-methyl-glycosides liberated from glycoproteins and glycolipids following methanolysis. The stable derivatives of the most common monosaccharides of these glycoconjugates (Ara, Rha, Xyl, Fuc, Gal, Man, Glc, GlcNAc, GalNAc, Neu5Ac, KDN) can be separated and quantitatively and reproducibly determined with a high degree of sensitivity level (down to 25 pmol) in the presence of lysine as an internal standard. The GlcNAc residue bound to Asn in N-glycans is quantitatively recovered as two peaks. The latter were easily distinguished from the other GlcNAc residues of N-glycans, thus allowing a considerable improvement of the data on structure of N-glycans obtained from a single carbohydrate analysis. The most common contaminants present in buffers commonly used for the isolation of soluble or membrane-bound glycoproteins (SDS, Triton X-100, DOC, TRIS, glycine, and polyacrylamide or salts, as well as monosaccharide constituents of proteoglycans or degradation products of nucleic acids) do not interfere with these determinations. A carbohydrate analysis of glycoproteins isolated from a SDS/PAGE gel or from PDVF membranes can be performed on microgram amounts without significant interferences. Since fatty acid methyl esters and sphingosine derivatives are separated from the monosaccharide peaks, the complete composition of gangliosides can be achieved in a single step starting from less than 1 microg of the initial compound purified by preparative Silicagel TLC. Using electron impact ionization mass spectrometry, reporter ions for the different classes of O-methyl-glycosides (pentoses, deoxy-hexoses, hexoses, hexosamines, uronic acids, sialic acid, and KDN) allow the identification of these compounds in very complex mixtures. The mass of each compound can be determined in the chemical ionization mode and detection of positive or negative ions. This method presents a considerable improvement compared to those using TMS derivatives. Indeed the heptafluorobutyrate derivatives are stable, and acylation of amino groups is complete. Moreover, there is no interference with contaminants and the separation between fatty acid methyl-esters and O-methyl glycosides is achieved. (+info)
Methodological issues in biomonitoring of low level exposure to benzene.
Data from a pilot study on unmetabolized benzene and trans,trans muconic acid (t,t-MA) excretion in filling station attendants and unexposed controls were used to afford methodological issues in the biomonitoring of low benzene exposures (around 0.1 ppm). Urinary concentrations of benzene and t,t-MA were measured by dynamic head-space capillary GC/FID and HPLC, respectively. The accuracy of the HPLC determination of t,t-MA was assessed in terms of inter- and intra-method reliability. The adequacy of urinary t,t-MA and benzene as biological markers of low benzene exposure was evaluated by analysing the relationship between personal exposure to benzene and biomarker excretion. Filling station attendants excreted significantly higher amounts of benzene, but not of t,t-MA, than controls. Adjusting for occupational benzene exposure, smokers excreted significantly higher amounts of t,t-MA, but not of unmetabolized benzene, than nonsmokers. A comparative analysis of the present and previously published biomonitoring surveys showed a good inter-study agreement regarding the amount of t,t-MA and unmetabolized benzene excreted (about 0.1-0.2 mg/l and 1-2 micrograms/l, respectively) per unit of exposure (0.1 ppm). For each biomarker, based on the distribution of parameters observed in the pilot study, we calculated the minimum sample size required to estimate the population mean with given confidence and precision. (+info)
The structure of a glycopeptide (GP-II) isolated from Rhizopus saccharogenic amylase.
Mild alkaline treatment of glycopeptide (GP-II) resulted in the loss of 1 mole of serine and 5 moles of threonine per mole of GP-II, suggesting the presence of O-glycosyl bonds between 1 serine and 5 threonine residues and carbohydrate chains. Treatment of GP-II with alkaline borohydride released only disaccharide. Methylation studies of the carbohydrate moiety gave 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-methyl and 2,4,6-tri-O-methyl derivatives of mannose in a ratio of approximately 1:1. In addition, one step of Smith degradation resulted in the loss of about 6 residues of mannose per mole of GP-II. Moreover, alpha-mannosidase [EC 126.96.36.199] liberated about 6 residles of mannose per mole of GP-II. On the basis of these data, the structure of the carbohydrate moiety of GP-II was confirmed to be 3-O-alpha-mannosylmannose. The amino- and carboxyl-terminal amino acids of GP-II were determined to be threonine and serine, respectively. On reductive cleavage of N-proline bonds with metallic sodium in liquid ammonia, 2 moles of alanine per mole of GP-II were lost. From the compositions of three fragments isolated from the reductive cleavage products, the amino acid sequence of the peptide portion of GP-II was determined. Based on these data, a probable structure was proposed for GP-II. (+info)
Cellular fatty acids and metabolic products of Pseudomonas species obtained from clinical specimens.
The cellular fatty acid composition of 112 reference strains and clinical isolates of Pseudomonas species was determined by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC). The presence and relative amounts of cyclopropane, hydroxy, and branched-chain fatty acids were distinguishing features of these strains. Determination of short-chain fatty acids extracted from spent growth media provided an additional means for identifying some strains. Our results show that clinical isolates of pseudomonads can be divided into eight distinct GLC groups. The procedures were especially useful for distinguishing glucose-nonoxidizing pseudomonads, which are difficult to identify by conventional criteria. Since the GLC procedures are simple, rapid, and highly reproducible, they are useful in diagnostic laboratories that process large numbers of cultures. Coupled with selected conventional tests, the analysis of short-chain and cellular fatty acids can be very useful for rapid screening of clinical isolates of Pseudomonas species. (+info)