(1/2418) 3-Hydroxylaminophenol mutase from Ralstonia eutropha JMP134 catalyzes a Bamberger rearrangement.
3-Hydroxylaminophenol mutase from Ralstonia eutropha JMP134 is involved in the degradative pathway of 3-nitrophenol, in which it catalyzes the conversion of 3-hydroxylaminophenol to aminohydroquinone. To show that the reaction was really catalyzed by a single enzyme without the release of intermediates, the corresponding protein was purified to apparent homogeneity from an extract of cells grown on 3-nitrophenol as the nitrogen source and succinate as the carbon and energy source. 3-Hydroxylaminophenol mutase appears to be a relatively hydrophobic but soluble and colorless protein consisting of a single 62-kDa polypeptide. The pI was determined to be at pH 4.5. In a database search, the NH2-terminal amino acid sequence of the undigested protein and of two internal sequences of 3-hydroxylaminophenol mutase were found to be most similar to those of glutamine synthetases from different species. Hydroxylaminobenzene, 4-hydroxylaminotoluene, and 2-chloro-5-hydroxylaminophenol, but not 4-hydroxylaminobenzoate, can also serve as substrates for the enzyme. The enzyme requires no oxygen or added cofactors for its reaction, which suggests an enzymatic mechanism analogous to the acid-catalyzed Bamberger rearrangement. (+info)
(2/2418) Separation and properties of two acetylacetoin reductases from Bacillus cereus YUF-4.
The separation and purification of two kinds of acetylacetoin reductases (AACRs) from Bacillus cereus YUF-4 were examined. NADPH-linked AACR (AACR I) and NADH-linked AACR (AACR II) were separated from each other by ammonium sulfate fractionation, DEAE-cellulose chromatography, and hydroxyapatite chromatography. The former was purified 3.4-fold with a yield of 10.0%, and the latter was purified 29-fold with a yield of 15.6%. The two enzymes differ from each other in some enzymic properties such as substrate specificity. (+info)
(3/2418) Synthesis and degradation of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid by Penicillium citrinum.
1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), which is a precursor of ethylene in plants, has never been known to occur in microorganisms. We describe the synthesis of ACC by Penicillium citrinum, purification of ACC synthase [EC 188.8.131.52] and ACC deaminase [EC 184.108.40.206], and their properties. Analyses of P. citrinum culture showed occurrence of ACC in the culture broth and in the cell extract. ACC synthase was purified from cells grown in a medium containing 0.05% L-methionine and ACC deaminase was done from cells incubated in a medium containing 1% 2-aminoisobutyrate. The purified ACC synthase, with a specific activity of 327 milliunit/mg protein, showed a single band of M(r) 48,000 in SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The molecular mass of the native enzyme by gel filtration was 96,000 Da. The ACC synthase had the Km for S-adenosyl-L-methionine of 1.74 mM and kcat of 0.56 s-1 per monomer. The purified ACC deaminase, with a specific activity of 4.7 unit/mg protein, showed one band in SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of M(r) 41,000. The molecular mass of the native ACC deaminase was 68,000 Da by gel filtration. The enzyme had a Km for ACC of 4.8 mM and kcat of 3.52 s-1. The presence of 7 mM Cu2+ in alkaline buffer solution was effective for increasing the stability of the ACC deaminase in the process of purification. (+info)
(4/2418) Purification and characterization of phosphoglycerate mutase from methanol-grown Hyphomicrobium X and Pseudomonas AM1.
Phosphoglycerate mutase has been purified from methanol-grown Hyphomicrobium X and Pseudomonas AMI by acid precipitation, heat treatment, ammonium sulphate fractionation, Sephadex G-50 gel filtration and DEAE-cellulose column chromatography. The purification attained using the Hyphomicrobium X extract was 72-fold, and using the Pseudomonas AMI extract, 140-fold. The enzyme purity, as shown by analytical polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, was 50% from Hyphomicrobium X and 40% from Pseudomonas AMI. The enzyme activity was associated with one band. The purified preparations did not contain detectable amounts of phosphoglycerate kinase, phosphopyruvate hydratase, phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase or glycerate kinase activity. The molecular weight of the enzymic preparation was 32000 +/- 3000. The enzyme from both organisms was stable at low temperatures and, in the presence of 2,3-diphosphoglyceric acid, could withstand exposure to high temperatures. The enzyme from Pseudomonas AMI has a broad pH optimum at 7-0 to 7-6 whilst the enzyme from Hyphomicrobium X has an optimal activity at pH 7-3. The cofactor 2,3-diphosphoglyceric acid was required for maximum enzyme activity and high concentrations of 2-phosphoglyceric acid were inhibitory. The Km values for the Hyphomicrobium X enzyme were: 3-phosphoglyceric acid, 6-0 X 10(-3) M: 2-phosphoglyceric acid, 6-9 X 10(-4) M; 2,3-diphosphoglyceric acid, 8-0 X 10(-6) M; and for the Pseudomonas AMI ENzyme: 3-4 X 10(-3) M, 3-7 X 10(-4) M and 10 X 10(-6) M respectively. The equilibrium constant for the reaction was 11-3 +/- 2-5 in the direction of 2-phosphoglyceric acid to 3-phosphoglyceric acid and 0-09 +/- 0-02 in the reverse direction. The standard free energy for the reaction proceeding from 2-phosphoglyceric acid to 3-phosphoglyceric acid was -5-84 kJ mol(-1) and in the reverse direction +5-81 kJ mol(-1). (+info)
(5/2418) The complete amino acid sequence of dog beta2-microglobulin.
Dog beta2-microglobulin was purified from the urine of dogs with potassium dichromate induced tubular damage. It was purified by sequential use of anion exchange chromatography, gel filtration chromatography, and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Comparisons of the amino acid sequence of the dog protein with human, mouse, and rabbit beta2-microglobulin, indicated a high degree of similarity. The dog protein was very similar to human beta2-microglobulin in that it had a molecular weight of 11.8 kDa and contained two half-cystinyl residues. Dog and human beta2-microglobulin were demonstrably different at 24 of the 99 positions compared. The data supported the conclusion that the purified protein was dog beta2-microglobulin and that all four proteins from dog, human, mouse, and rabbit were closely related. (+info)
(6/2418) Polar lipids of four Listeria species containing L-lysylcardiolipin, a novel lipid structure, and other unique phospholipids.
The membrane lipids of Listeria innocua, Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria seeligeri and Listeria welshimeri were fractionated on DEAE-cellulose and purified by chromatography on silica gel and/or preparative TLC. The lipid structures were elucidated by chemical and chromatographic means. The polar lipid composition of the four listeria species was similar. Phospholipids predominated. They consisted of phosphatidylglycerol, L-lysylphosphatidylglycerol, cardiolipin [bis(phosphatidyl)glycerol] and L-lysylcardiolipin. A phospholipid more polar than cardiolipin, possibly two L-lysyl derivatives of it, sn-glycero-1-phosphoglycolipid, its D-alanyl derivative, and polyprenol phosphate were also detected. Towards the end of exponential growth, the relative amounts of cardiolipin and L-lysylcardiolipin increased, approaching 47-78% lipid phosphorus with a ratio of L-lysylcardiolipin to cardiolipin of 0.25-1.6. As shown by fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry, cardiolipin and L-lysylcardiolipin consisted of five molecular species due to various fatty acid combinations. L-lysylcardiolipin has so far not been found in nature. It belongs to the recently discovered class of substituted cardiolipins. Its occurrence in the four listeria species tested shows that it is a characteristic lipid component of the L. monocytogenes line of descent. Further studies on the lipid pattern of members of the other descent line are required to decide whether lysylcardiolipin can serve as a genus-specific chemotaxonomic marker for listeriae. (+info)
(7/2418) Purification, cDNA cloning, and expression of GDP-L-Fuc:Asn-linked GlcNAc alpha1,3-fucosyltransferase from mung beans.
Substitution of the asparagine-linked GlcNAc by alpha1,3-linked fucose is a widespread feature of plant as well as of insect glycoproteins, which renders the N-glycan immunogenic. We have purified from mung bean seedlings the GDP-L-Fuc:Asn-linked GlcNAc alpha1,3-fucosyltransferase (core alpha1,3-fucosyltransferase) that is responsible for the synthesis of this linkage. The major isoform had an apparent mass of 54 kDa and isoelectric points ranging from 6. 8 to 8.2. From that protein, four tryptic peptides were isolated and sequenced. Based on an approach involving reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction with degenerate primers and rapid amplification of cDNA ends, core alpha1,3-fucosyltransferase cDNA was cloned from mung bean mRNA. The 2200-base pair cDNA contained an open reading frame of 1530 base pairs that encoded a 510-amino acid protein with a predicted molecular mass of 56.8 kDa. Analysis of cDNA derived from genomic DNA revealed the presence of three introns within the open reading frame. Remarkably, from the four exons, only exon II exhibited significant homology to animal and bacterial alpha1,3/4-fucosyltransferases which, though, are responsible for the biosynthesis of Lewis determinants. The recombinant fucosyltransferase was expressed in Sf21 insect cells using a baculovirus vector. The enzyme acted on glycopeptides having the glycan structures GlcNAcbeta1-2Manalpha1-3(GlcNAcbeta1-2Manalpha1- 6)Manbeta1-4GlcNAcbet a1-4GlcNAcbeta1-Asn, GlcNAcbeta1-2Manalpha1-3(GlcNAcbeta1-2Manalpha1- 6)Manbeta1-4GlcNAcbet a1-4(Fucalpha1-6)GlcNAcbeta1-Asn, and GlcNAcbeta1-2Manalpha1-3[Manalpha1-3(Manalpha1-6 )Manalpha1-6]Manbeta1 -4GlcNAcbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta1-Asn but not on, e.g. N-acetyllactosamine. The structure of the core alpha1,3-fucosylated product was verified by high performance liquid chromatography of the pyridylaminated glycan and by its insensitivity to N-glycosidase F as revealed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry. (+info)
(8/2418) Steroid monooxygenase of Rhodococcus rhodochrous: sequencing of the genomic DNA, and hyperexpression, purification, and characterization of the recombinant enzyme.
Steroid monooxygenase of Rhodococcus rhodochrous is a Baeyer-Villigerase catalyzing the insertion of an oxygen atom between the C(17)- and C(20)-carbons of progesterone to produce testosterone acetate. The 5.1-kbp-long BamHI DNA fragment containing the steroid monooxygenase gene, smo, was cloned from the chromosomal DNA and sequenced. The smo gene is 1,650 nucleotides long, starts with a TTG codon, and ends with a TGA codon. The deduced amino acid sequence indicates that the enzyme protein consist of 549 amino acid residues with a molecular mass of 60,133. Thus, the molecular mass of the holoenzyme is 60,919. The amino acid sequence is highly homologous (41.2% identity) to that of cyclohexanone monooxygenase of Acinetobacter sp. In the upstream of the smo gene, the genes of heat shock proteins, dnaK, grpE, and dnaJ, located on the complementary strand, and the DNA-inserts of pSMO and pD1, which contains the ksdD gene, were joined at the BamHI site of the dnaJ gene. The smo gene was modified at the initiation codon to ATG and ligated with an expression vector to construct a plasmid, pSMO-EX, and introduced into Escherichia coli cells. The transformed cells hyperexpressed the steroid monooxygenase as an active and soluble protein at more than 40 times the level in R. rhodochrous cells. Purification of the recombinant monooxygenase from the E. coli cells by simplified procedures yielded about 2.3 mg of enzyme protein/g wet cells. The purified recombinant steroid monooxygenase exhibited indistinguishable molecular and catalytic properties from those of the R. rhodochrous enzyme. (+info)