Specific targeting and constitutive association of histone deacetylase complexes during transcriptional repression.
Specific recruitment of corepressor complexes containing histone deacetylases (HDAC) by transcription factors is believed to play an essential role in transcriptional repression. Recent studies indicate that repression by unliganded nuclear hormone receptors and by the Mad family of repressors requires distinct HDAC-containing corepressor complexes. In this work, we show that unliganded TR specifically recruits only the closely related N-CoR and SMRT-HDAC3 complexes, whereas the Mad1 recruits only the Sin3-HDAC1/2 complex. Significantly, both the Sin3 and Mi-2/NURD complexes also exhibit constitutive association with chromatin and contribute to chromatin deacetylation in a nontargeted fashion. These results suggest that HDAC complexes can contribute to gene repression by two distinct mechanisms as follows: (1) specific targeting by repressors and (2) constitutive association with chromatin. (+info)
Partially phosphorylated Pho4 activates transcription of a subset of phosphate-responsive genes.
A cell's ability to generate different responses to different levels of stimulus is an important component of an adaptive environmental response. Transcriptional responses are frequently controlled by transcription factors regulated by phosphorylation. We demonstrate that differential phosphorylation of the budding yeast transcription factor Pho4 contributes to differential gene expression. When yeast cells are grown in high-phosphate growth medium, Pho4 is phosphorylated on four critical residues by the cyclin-CDK complex Pho80-Pho85 and is inactivated. When yeast cells are starved for phosphate, Pho4 is dephosphorylated and fully active. In intermediate-phosphate conditions, a form of Pho4 preferentially phosphorylated on one of the four sites accumulates and activates transcription of a subset of phosphate-responsive genes. This Pho4 phosphoform binds differentially to phosphate-responsive promoters and helps to trigger differential gene expression. Our results demonstrate that three transcriptional outputs can be generated by a pathway whose regulation is controlled by one kinase, Pho80-Pho85, and one transcription factor, Pho4. Differential phosphorylation of Pho4 by Pho80-Pho85 produces phosphorylated forms of Pho4 that differ in their ability to activate transcription, contributing to multiple outputs. (+info)
Distinct mechanisms determine transposon inheritance and methylation via small interfering RNA and histone modification.
Heritable, but reversible, changes in transposable element activity were first observed in maize by Barbara McClintock in the 1950s. More recently, transposon silencing has been associated with DNA methylation, histone H3 lysine-9 methylation (H3mK9), and RNA interference (RNAi). Using a genetic approach, we have investigated the role of these modifications in the epigenetic regulation and inheritance of six Arabidopsis transposons. Silencing of most of the transposons is relieved in DNA methyltransferase (met1), chromatin remodeling ATPase (ddm1), and histone modification (sil1) mutants. In contrast, only a small subset of the transposons require the H3mK9 methyltransferase KRYPTONITE, the RNAi gene ARGONAUTE1, and the CXG methyltransferase CHROMOMETHYLASE3. In crosses to wild-type plants, epigenetic inheritance of active transposons varied from mutant to mutant, indicating these genes differ in their ability to silence transposons. According to their pattern of transposon regulation, the mutants can be divided into two groups, which suggests that there are distinct, but interacting, complexes or pathways involved in transposon silencing. Furthermore, different transposons tend to be susceptible to different forms of epigenetic regulation. (+info)
Role of Saccharomyces single-stranded DNA-binding protein RPA in the strand invasion step of double-strand break repair.
The single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-binding protein replication protein A (RPA) is essential for both DNA replication and recombination. Chromatin immunoprecipitation techniques were used to visualize the kinetics and extent of RPA binding following induction of a double-strand break (DSB) and during its repair by homologous recombination in yeast. RPA assembles at the HO endonuclease-cut MAT locus simultaneously with the appearance of the DSB, and binding spreads away from the DSB as 5' to 3' exonuclease activity creates more ssDNA. RPA binding precedes binding of the Rad51 recombination protein. The extent of RPA binding is greater when Rad51 is absent, supporting the idea that Rad51 displaces RPA from ssDNA. RPA plays an important role during RAD51-mediated strand invasion of the MAT ssDNA into the donor sequence HML. The replication-proficient but recombination-defective rfa1-t11 (K45E) mutation in the large subunit of RPA is normal in facilitating Rad51 filament formation on ssDNA, but is unable to achieve synapsis between MAT and HML. Thus, RPA appears to play a role in strand invasion as well as in facilitating Rad51 binding to ssDNA, possibly by stabilizing the displaced ssDNA. (+info)
Activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) and sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) are activated by proteolytic cleavage. The ensuing nuclear translocation of their N-termini (i.e., ATF6(N) and SREBP(N)) activates the respective target genes involved in unfolded protein response and lipogenesis. Here, we report that glucose deprivation activated ATF6 but suppressed the SREBP2-regulated transcription. Overexpression of ATF6(N) had similar inhibitory effects on SREBP2-targeted genes. The blockade of ATF6 cleavage by BiP/grp78 reversed this inhibitory effect. GST pull-down and immunoprecipitation assays revealed that ATF6(N) bound to SREBP2(N). Deletion analysis of the various functional domains of ATF6 indicated that the interaction was through its leucine-zipper domain. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that ATF6(N) formed a complex with the SRE-bound SREBP2(N). The attenuated transcriptional activity of SREBP2 was due, in part, to the recruitment of HDAC1 to the ATF6-SREBP2 complex. As a functional consequence, the lipogenic effect of SREBP2(N) in liver cells was suppressed by ATF6(N). Our results provide a novel mechanism by which ATF6 antagonizes SREBP2 to regulate the homeostasis of lipid and glucose. (+info)
Formation, maintenance and consequences of the imprint at the mating-type locus in fission yeast.
Mating-type switching in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe is initiated by a strand-specific imprint located at the mating-type (mat1) locus. We show that the imprint corresponds to a single-strand DNA break (SSB), which is site- but not sequence-specific. We identified three novel cis-acting elements, involved in the formation and stability of the SSB. One of these elements is essential for a replication fork pause next to mat1 and interacts in vivo with the Swi1 protein. Another element is essential for maintaining the SSB during cell cycle progression. These results suggest that the DNA break appears during the S-phase and is actively protected against repair. Consequently, during the following round of replication, a polar double-strand break is formed. We show that when the replication fork encounters the SSB, the leading-strand DNA polymerase is able to synthesize DNA to the edge of the SSB, creating a blunt-ended recombination intermediate. (+info)
MDR1 promoter hypermethylation in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells: changes in chromatin structure induced by treatment with 5-Aza-cytidine.
Resistance to the cytotoxic actions of antineoplastic drugs, whether intrinsic or acquired, remains a barrier to the establishment of curative chemotherapy regimens for advanced breast cancer. Over-expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), encoded by the MDR1 gene and known to mediate resistance to many antineoplastic drugs, may contribute to poor breast cancer treatment outcome. Nonetheless, the precise molecular mechanisms responsible for high or low level P-gp expression in breast cancer cells have not been established. We assessed the role of DNA hypermethylation near the MDR1 transcriptional regulatory region in MDR1 expression in MCF-7 breast cancer cells, which fail to express MDR1 mRNA, and MCF-7/ADR cells, known to express high MDR1 mRNA levels. When compared to MCF-7/ADR cells, MCF-7 cells manifested markedly diminished MDR1 transcription rates by nuclear run-off assay, but equivalent MDR1 promoter trans-activation activity in transient transfection experiments, indicating that cis factors were most likely responsible for the differences in MDR1 transcription between MCF-7/ADR cells and MCF-7 cells. Bisulfite genomic sequencing analyses revealed substantially less extensive MDR1 promoter methylation in MCF-7/ADR cells than in MCF-7 cells, suggesting that CpG dinucleotide methylation might contribute to the observed MDR1 transcription differences. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses indicated an inactive MDR1 chromatin conformation in MCF-7 cells, with a paucity of acetylated histones and the presence of 5-mC-binding proteins MeCP2 and MBD2, and an active MDR1 chromatin conformation in MCF-7/ADR cells, with an abundance of acetylated histones and the presence of the transcriptional trans-activator YB-1. Stable MCF-7 sublines which had been treated with the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-azacytidine, exhibited a reduction in MDR1 promoter methylation and a complex MDR1 chromatin configuration, characterized by the simultaneous presence of transcriptional activators and repressors. In this state, MDR1 expression was markedly sensitive to treatment with the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A. (+info)
Spatial organization and dynamics of the association of Rec102 and Rec104 with meiotic chromosomes.
Meiotic double-strand breaks (DSBs) are formed by Spo11 in conjunction with at least nine other proteins whose roles are not well understood. We find that two of these proteins, Rec102 and Rec104, interact physically, are mutually dependent for proper subcellular localization, and share a requirement for Spo11 and Ski8 for their recruitment to meiotic chromosomes, suggesting that they work together as a functional unit. Rec102 associated extensively with chromatin loops during leptotene and zygotene and showed preferential binding in the vicinity at least of most DSB sites, consistent with a direct role in DSB formation. However, Rec102 was associated with both DSB-hot and DSB-cold regions, ruling out a simple model in which sites of DSB formation are dictated by where Rec102/104 complexes load. Both proteins persisted on chromatin until pachytene before abruptly disappearing, indicating that they remain on chromosomes well after DSB formation. These studies reveal unexpected behaviors for Rec102 and Rec104, and point to distinct roles and subcomplexes among the DSB proteins. (+info)