(1/802) The conserved protein kinase Ipl1 regulates microtubule binding to kinetochores in budding yeast.
Chromosome segregation depends on kinetochores, the structures that mediate chromosome attachment to the mitotic spindle. We isolated mutants in IPL1, which encodes a protein kinase, in a screen for budding yeast mutants that have defects in sister chromatid separation and segregation. Cytological tests show that ipl1 mutants can separate sister chromatids but are defective in chromosome segregation. Kinetochores assembled in extracts from ipl1 mutants show altered binding to microtubules. Ipl1p phosphorylates the kinetochore component Ndc10p in vitro and we propose that Ipl1p regulates kinetochore function via Ndc10p phosphorylation. Ipl1p localizes to the mitotic spindle and its levels are regulated during the cell cycle. This pattern of localization and regulation is similar to that of Ipl1p homologs in higher eukaryotes, such as the human aurora2 protein. Because aurora2 has been implicated in oncogenesis, defects in kinetochore function may contribute to genetic instability in human tumors. (+info)
(2/802) Rec8p, a meiotic recombination and sister chromatid cohesion phosphoprotein of the Rad21p family conserved from fission yeast to humans.
Our work and that of others defined mitosis-specific (Rad21 subfamily) and meiosis-specific (Rec8 subfamily) proteins involved in sister chromatid cohesion in several eukaryotes, including humans. Mutation of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe rec8 gene was previously shown to confer a number of meiotic phenotypes, including strong reduction of recombination frequencies in the central region of chromosome III, absence of linear element polymerization, reduced pairing of homologous chromosomes, reduced sister chromatid cohesion, aberrant chromosome segregation, defects in spore formation, and reduced spore viability. Here we extend the description of recombination reduction to the central regions of chromosomes I and II. We show at the protein level that expression of rec8 is meiosis specific and that Rec8p localizes to approximately 100 foci per prophase nucleus. Rec8p was present in an unphosphorylated form early in meiotic prophase but was phosphorylated prior to meiosis I, as demonstrated by analysis of the mei4 mutant blocked before meiosis I. Evidence for the persistence of Rec8p beyond meiosis I was obtained by analysis of the mutant mes1 blocked before meiosis II. A human gene, which we designate hrec8, showed significant primary sequence similarity to rec8 and was mapped to chromosome 14. High mRNA expression of mouse and human rec8 genes was found only in germ line cells, specifically in testes and, interestingly, in spermatids. hrec8 was also expressed at a low level in the thymus. Sequence similarity and testis-specific expression indicate evolutionarily conserved functions of Rec8p in meiosis. Possible roles of Rec8p in the integration of different meiotic events are discussed. (+info)
(3/802) Sister chromatid-based DNA repair is mediated by RAD54, not by DMC1 or TID1.
In the mitotic cell cycle of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the sister chromatid is preferred over the homologous chromosome (non-sister chromatid) as a substrate for DNA double-strand break repair. However, no genes have yet been shown to be preferentially involved in sister chromatid-mediated repair. We developed a novel method to identify genes that are required for repair by the sister chromatid, using a haploid strain that can embark on meiosis. We show that the recombinational repair gene RAD54 is required primarily for sister chromatid-based repair, whereas TID1, a yeast RAD54 homologue, and the meiotic gene DMC1, are dispensable for this type of repair. Our observations suggest that the sister chromatid repair pathway, which involves RAD54, and the homologous chromosome repair pathway, which involves DMC1, can substitute for one another under some circumstances. Deletion of RAD54 in S.cerevisiae results in a phenotype similar to that found in mammalian cells, namely impaired DNA repair and reduced recombination during mitotic growth, with no apparent effect on meiosis. The principal role of RAD54 in sister chromatid-based repair may also be shared by mammalian and yeast cells. (+info)
(4/802) Characterization of the components of the putative mammalian sister chromatid cohesion complex.
Establishing and maintaining proper sister chromatid cohesion throughout the cell cycle are essential for maintaining genome integrity. To understand how sister chromatid cohesion occurs in mammals, we have cloned and characterized mouse orthologs of proteins known to be involved in sister chromatid cohesion in other organisms. The cDNAs for the mouse orthologs of SMC1S.c. and SMC3S.c. , mSMCB and mSMCD respectively, were cloned, and the corresponding transcripts and proteins were characterized. mSMCB and mSMCD are transcribed at similar levels in adult mouse tissues except in testis, which has an excess of mSMCD transcripts. The mSMCB and mSMCD proteins, as well as the PW29 protein, a mouse homolog of Mcd1pS.c./Rad21S.p., form a complex similar to cohesin in X. laevis. mSMCB, mSMCD and PW29 protein levels show no significant cell-cycle dependence. The bulk of the mSMCB, mSMCD and PW29 proteins undergo redistribution from the chromosome vicinity to the cytoplasm during prometaphase and back to the chromatin in telophase. This pattern of intracellular localization suggests a complex role for this group of SMC proteins in chromosome dynamics. The PW29 protein and PCNA, which have both been implicated in sister chromatid cohesion, do not colocalize, indicating that these proteins may not function in the same cohesion pathway. Overexpression of a PW29-GFP fusion protein in mouse fibroblasts leads to inhibition of proliferation, implicating this protein and its complex with SMC proteins in the control of mitotic cycle progression. (+info)
(5/802) Chromosomal analysis of peripheral lymphocytes of patients before and after radiation synovectomy with samarium-153 particulate hydroxyapatite.
OBJECTIVE: Radiation synovectomy may be indicated for the treatment of chronic synovitis. A number of factors may affect its current use, including availability, limited evidence for its efficacy compared to intra-articular glucocorticoid, and concerns regarding the potential long-term effects of radiation exposure, particularly in younger patients. Specific chromosome-type abnormalities in peripheral lymphocytes can be useful indicators of whole-body radiation exposure. The frequency of these aberrations has been shown to increase in patients who have had radiation synovectomy using yttrium-90 by up to five times compared to baseline levels. Samarium-153 particulate hydroxyapatite (Sm-153 PHYP) is a new radiopharmaceutical currently on trial which appears to have less extra-articular leakage than yttrium-90 compounds. The aim of this study was to identify any increase in specific chromosome-type abnormalities, using published criteria, in patients following Sm-153 PHYP synovectomy of the knee. The 10 patients (five men, five women) in whom the analyses were performed had a mean age of 47 yr (range 28-70 yr). RESULTS: There was no increase in scored chromosome-type abnormalities after Sm-153 PHYP synovectomy. CONCLUSION: This study further supports the relative safety of Sm-153 PHYP compared to other radiopharmaceuticals. (+info)
(6/802) Sli15 associates with the ipl1 protein kinase to promote proper chromosome segregation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
The conserved Ipl1 protein kinase is essential for proper chromosome segregation and thus cell viability in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Its human homologue has been implicated in the tumorigenesis of diverse forms of cancer. We show here that sister chromatids that have separated from each other are not properly segregated to opposite poles of ipl1-2 cells. Failures in chromosome segregation are often associated with abnormal distribution of the spindle pole-associated Nuf2-GFP protein, thus suggesting a link between potential spindle pole defects and chromosome missegregation in ipl1 mutant cells. A small fraction of ipl1-2 cells also appears to be defective in nuclear migration or bipolar spindle formation. Ipl1 associates, probably directly, with the novel and essential Sli15 protein in vivo, and both proteins are localized to the mitotic spindle. Conditional sli15 mutant cells have cytological phenotypes very similar to those of ipl1 cells, and the ipl1-2 mutation exhibits synthetic lethal genetic interaction with sli15 mutations. sli15 mutant phenotype, like ipl1 mutant phenotype, is partially suppressed by perturbations that reduce protein phosphatase 1 function. These genetic and biochemical studies indicate that Sli15 associates with Ipl1 to promote its function in chromosome segregation. (+info)
(7/802) Inherited susceptibility to bleomycin-induced chromatid breaks in cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes.
BACKGROUND: Susceptibility to bleomycin-induced chromatid breaks in cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes may reflect the way a person deals with carcinogenic challenges. This susceptibility (also referred to as mutagen sensitivity) has been found to be increased in patients with environmentally related cancers, including cancers of the head and neck, lung, and colon, and, in combination with carcinogenic exposure, this susceptibility can greatly influence cancer risk. The purpose of this study was to assess the heritability of mutagen sensitivity. METHODS: Heritability was determined by use of a maximum likelihood method that employed the FISHER package of pedigree analysis. Bleomycin-induced breaks per cell values for 135 healthy volunteers without cancer were determined. These individuals were from 53 different pedigrees and included 25 monozygotic twin pairs (n = 50), 14 pairs of dizygotes (twin pairs and siblings, n = 28), and 14 families selected on the basis of a first-degree relative who was successfully treated for head and neck cancer and who had no sign of recurrence for at least 1 year. All data were analyzed simultaneously, and different models of familial resemblance were fitted to the data. All P values are two-sided. RESULTS: Our results showed no evidence for the influence of a shared family environment on bleomycin-induced chromatid breaks. Genetic influences, however, were statistically significant (P =. 036) and accounted for 75% of the total variance. CONCLUSIONS: The high heritability estimate of the susceptibility to bleomycin-induced chromatid breaks indicates a clear genetic basis. The findings of this study support the notion that a common genetic susceptibility to DNA damage--and thereby a susceptibility to cancer--may exist in the general population. (+info)
(8/802) A functional assay for centromere-associated sister chromatid cohesion.
Cohesion of sister chromatids occurs along the entire length of chromosomes, including the centromere where it plays essential roles in chromosome segregation. Here, minichromosomes in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are exploited to generate a functional assay for DNA sequences involved in cohesion. The centromeric DNA element CDEIII was found to be necessary but not sufficient for cohesion. This element was shown previously to be required for assembly of the kinetochore, the centromere-associated protein complex that attaches chromosomes to the spindle. These observations establish a link between centromere-proximal cohesion and kinetochore assembly. (+info)