The vacuolar proton pump of clathrin-coated vesicles is composed of two general sectors, a cytosolic, ATP hydrolytic domain (V1) and an intramembranous proton channel, V0. V1 is comprised of 8-9 subunits including polypeptides of 50 and 57 kDa, termed SFD (Sub Fifty-eight-kDa Doublet). Although SFD is essential to the activation of ATPase and proton pumping activities catalyzed by holoenzyme, its constituent polypeptides have not been separated to determine their respective roles in ATPase functions. Recent molecular characterization of these subunits revealed that they are isoforms that arise through an alternative splicing mechanism (Zhou, Z., Peng, S.-B., Crider, B.P., Slaughter, C., Xie, X.S., and Stone, D.K. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 5878-5884). To determine the functional characteristics of the 57-kDa (SFDalpha)1 and 50-kDa (SFDbeta) isoforms, we expressed these proteins in Escherichia coli. We determined that purified recombinant proteins, rSFDalpha and rSFDbeta, when reassembled with SFD-depleted holoenzyme, are functionally interchangeable in restoration of ATPase and proton pumping activities. In addition, we determined that the V-pump of chromaffin granules has only the SFDalpha isoform in its native state and that rSFDalpha and rSFDbeta are equally effective in restoring ATPase and proton pumping activities to SFD-depleted enzyme. Finally, we found that SFDalpha and SFDbeta structurally interact not only with V1, but also withV0, indicating that these activator subunits may play both structural and functional roles in coupling ATP hydrolysis to proton flow. (+info)
Early requirement for alpha-SNAP and NSF in the secretory cascade in chromaffin cells.
NSF and alpha-SNAP have been shown to be required for SNARE complex disassembly and exocytosis. However, the exact requirement for NSF and alpha-SNAP in vesicular traffic through the secretory pathway remains controversial. We performed a study on the kinetics of exocytosis from bovine chromaffin cells using high time resolution capacitance measurement and electrochemical amperometry, combined with flash photolysis of caged Ca2+ as a fast stimulus. alpha-SNAP, a C-terminal mutant of alpha-SNAP, and NEM were assayed for their effects on secretion kinetics. Two kinetically distinct components of catecholamine release can be observed upon fast step-like elevation of [Ca2+]i. One is the exocytotic burst, thought to represent the readily releasable pool of vesicles. Following the exocytotic burst, secretion proceeds slowly at maintained high [Ca2+]i, which may represent vesicle maturation/recruitment, i.e. some priming steps after docking. alpha-SNAP increased the amplitude of both the exocytotic burst and the slow component but did not change their kinetics, which we examined with millisecond time resolution. In addition, NEM only partially inhibited the slow component without altering the exocytotic burst, fusion kinetics and the rate of endocytosis. These results suggest a role for alpha-SNAP/NSF in priming granules for release at an early step, but not modifying the fusion of readily releasable granules. (+info)
Sympathomimetic effects of MIBG: comparison with tyramine.
Because nothing is known about whether metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) has tyramine-like actions, the sympathomimetic effects of MIBG were determined in the isolated rabbit heart and compared with those of tyramine. METHODS: Spontaneously beating rabbit hearts were perfused with Tyrode's solution (Langendorff technique; 37 degrees C; 26 mL/min), and the heart rate as well as the norepinephrine and dopamine overflow into the perfusate was measured before and after doses of MIBG or tyramine (0.03-10 micromol) given as bolus injections (100 microL) into the aortic cannula. Km and Vmax values for the neuronal uptake (uptake1) of 125I-MIBG and 14C-tyramine were obtained in human neuroblastoma (SK-N-SH) cells. The Ki of MIBG for inhibition of the 3H-catecholamine uptake mediated by the vesicular monoamine transporter was determined in membrane vesicles obtained from bovine chromaffin granules and compared with the previously reported Ki value for tyramine determined under identical experimental conditions. RESULTS: By producing increases in heart rate and norepinephrine overflow, both compounds had dose-dependent sympathomimetic effects in the rabbit heart. MIBG was much less effective than tyramine in increasing heart rate (maximum effect 59 versus 156 beats/min) and norepinephrine overflow (maximum effect 35 versus 218 pmol/g). Tyramine also caused increases in dopamine overflow, whereas MIBG was a poor dopamine releaser. At a dose of 10 micromol, the increase in heart rate lasted more than 60 min after MIBG and about 20 min after tyramine injection. Accordingly, the norepinephrine overflow caused by 10 micromol MIBG and tyramine declined with half-lives of 57.8 and 2.2 min, respectively. The effects of both drugs were drastically reduced in hearts exposed to 2 micromol/L desipramine. The kinetic parameters characterizing the saturation of neuronal uptake by 125I-MIBG and 14C-tyramine were similar for the two compounds: Km values of MIBG and tyramine were 1.6 and 1.7 micromol/L, respectively, and Vmax values of MIBG and tyramine were 43 and 37 pmol/mg protein/min, respectively. However, in inhibiting the vesicular 3H-catecholamine uptake, MIBG was eight times less potent than tyramine. CONCLUSION: MIBG is much less effective than tyramine as an indirect sympathomimetic agent. This is probably a result of its relatively low affinity for the vesicular monoamine transporter and explains the relatively poor ability of the drug to mobilize norepinephrine stored in synaptic vesicles. The long duration of MIBG action results primarily from the drug not being metabolized by monoamine oxidase. The sympathomimetic effects of MIBG described here are not likely to come into play in patients given diagnostic or common therapeutic doses of radioiodinated MIBG. (+info)
nSec-1 (munc-18) interacts with both primed and unprimed syntaxin 1A and associates in a dimeric complex on adrenal chromaffin granules.
The target-SNARE syntaxin 1A is an essential component of the core machinery required for regulated exocytosis (where SNARE is the soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein-attachment protein receptor). Syntaxin 1A interacts with a variety of other proteins, two of which, N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein (NSF) and alpha-soluble NSF attachment protein (alpha-SNAP) have been suggested to impart a conformational rearrangement on this protein during a reaction referred to as priming. We have studied the effect of the primed state on the binding properties of syntaxin 1A and we have confirmed that primed syntaxin 1A no longer associated with alpha-SNAP or its cognate vesicle-SNARE, vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP). Under such conditions, however, it retained the ability to bind to nSec-1. It has been demonstrated that nSec-1, a regulatory protein also involved in neuronal exocytosis, binds syntaxin 1A with high affinity in vitro, although evidence for this physical interaction occurring in vivo has proven elusive. We analysed the subcellular distribution of these two proteins in fractions from bovine adrenal medulla and detected syntaxin 1A and nSec-1 in both plasma membrane and chromaffin-granule fractions. Using a cross-linking approach with chromaffin-granule membranes we detected a putative dimeric complex composed of approx. 54% total granule membrane nSec-1 and approx. 30% total syntaxin 1A. The results of this study therefore suggest the possibility of nSec-1 interactions with primed syntaxin 1A and demonstrate a potentially significant interaction of syntaxin 1A and nSec-1 on the membranes of chromaffin granules. (+info)
Molecular cloning of endopin 1, a novel serpin localized to neurosecretory vesicles of chromaffin cells. Inhibition of basic residue-cleaving proteases by endopin 1.
Serpins represent a diverse class of endogenous protease inhibitors that regulate important biological functions. In consideration of the importance of regulated proteolysis within secretory vesicles for the production of peptide hormones and neurotransmitters, this study revealed the molecular identity of a novel serpin, endopin 1, that is localized to neurosecretory vesicles of neuropeptide-containing chromaffin cells (chromaffin granules). Endopin 1 of 68-70 kDa was present within isolated chromaffin granules. Stimulated cosecretion of endopin 1 with chromaffin granule components, [Met]enkephalin and a cysteine protease known as "prohormone thiol protease," demonstrated localization of endopin 1 to functional secretory vesicles. Punctate, discrete immunofluorescence cellular localization of endopin 1 in chromaffin cells was consistent with its secretory vesicle localization. Endopin 1 contains a unique reactive site loop with Arg as the predicted P1 residue, suggesting inhibition of basic residue-cleaving proteases; indeed, trypsin was potently inhibited (K(i(app)) of 5 nM), and plasmin was moderately inhibited. Although endopin 1 possesses homology with alpha(1)-antichymotrypsin, chymotrypsin was not inhibited. Moreover, endopin 1 inhibited the chromaffin granule prohormone thiol protease (involved in proenkephalin processing). These results suggest a role for the novel serpin, endopin 1, in regulating basic residue-cleaving proteases within neurosecretory vesicles of chromaffin cells. (+info)
Comparison of cysteine string protein (Csp) and mutant alpha-SNAP overexpression reveals a role for csp in late steps of membrane fusion in dense-core granule exocytosis in adrenal chromaffin cells.
Assembly of the SNARE complex and its disassembly caused by the action of soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF) attachment protein (SNAP) and NSF is crucial for the maintenance of vesicular traffic, including fusion of regulated exocytotic vesicles. Various other proteins may also have important roles in the processes leading to membrane fusion via interaction with the SNARE proteins, including the secretory vesicle cysteine string protein (Csp). Here we have examined the effect of overexpression of a dominant negative alpha-SNAP mutant or Csp on exocytosis of dense-core granules in single chromaffin cells monitored using amperometry to detect released catecholamine. Exocytosis of trans-Golgi network (TGN)-derived dense-core granules was substantially inhibited by expression of alpha-SNAP(L294A). The amplitude and characteristics of the individual release events were unaffected by expression of alpha-SNAP(L294A), consistent with an essential role for alpha-SNAP in early steps of priming but not in the fusion process. In contrast, Csp overexpression, which also inhibited the extent of exocytosis, also modified the kinetics of the individual release events seen as an increase in the rise time and a broadening of the residual amperometric spikes in Csp-transfected cells. These results suggest that unlike alpha-SNAP, Csp plays a key role in the protein interactions close to the fusion process or fusion pore opening during Ca(2+)-regulated exocytosis. (+info)
A pleckstrin homology domain specific for phosphatidylinositol 4, 5-bisphosphate (PtdIns-4,5-P2) and fused to green fluorescent protein identifies plasma membrane PtdIns-4,5-P2 as being important in exocytosis.
Kinetically distinct steps can be distinguished in the secretory response from neuroendocrine cells with slow ATP-dependent priming steps preceding the triggering of exocytosis by Ca(2+). One of these priming steps involves the maintenance of phosphatidylinositol 4, 5-bisphosphate (PtdIns-4,5-P(2)) through lipid kinases and is responsible for at least 70% of the ATP-dependent secretion observed in digitonin-permeabilized chromaffin cells. PtdIns-4,5-P(2) is usually thought to reside on the plasma membrane. However, because phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase is an integral chromaffin granule membrane protein, PtdIns-4,5-P(2) important in exocytosis may reside on the chromaffin granule membrane. In the present study we have investigated the localization of PtdIns-4,5-P(2) that is involved in exocytosis by transiently expressing in chromaffin cells a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain that specifically binds PtdIns-4, 5-P(2) and is fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP). The PH-GFP protein predominantly associated with the plasma membrane in chromaffin cells without any detectable association with chromaffin granules. Rhodamine-neomycin, which also binds to PtdIns-4,5-P(2), showed a similar subcellular localization. The transiently expressed PH-GFP inhibited exocytosis as measured by both biochemical and electrophysiological techniques. The results indicate that the inhibition was at a step after Ca(2+) entry and suggest that plasma membrane PtdIns-4,5-P(2) is important for exocytosis. Expression of PH-GFP also reduced calcium currents, raising the possibility that PtdIns-4,5-P(2) in some manner alters calcium channel function in chromaffin cells. (+info)
Nitric oxide modulates a late step of exocytosis.
The effects of nitric oxide (NO) on the late phase of exocytosis have been studied, by amperometry, on Ba(2+)-stimulated chromaffin cells. Acute incubation with NO or NO donors (sodium nitroprusside, spermine-NO, S-nitrosoglutathione) produced a drastic slowdown of the granule emptying. Conversely, cell treatment with N(omega)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (a NO synthase inhibitor) or with NO scavengers (methylene blue, 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5, 5-tetramethyl-imidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide potassium) accelerated the extrusion of catecholamines from chromaffin granules, suggesting the presence of a NO modulatory tone. The incubation with phosphodiesterase inhibitors (3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine or zaprinast) or with the cell-permeant cGMP analog 8-bromo-cGMP, mimicked the effects of NO, suggesting the involvement of the guanylate cyclase cascade. NO effects were not related to changes in intracellular Ba(2+). NO did not modify the duration of feet. Effects were evident even on pre-fusioned granules, observed under hypertonic conditions, suggesting that the fusion pore is not the target for NO, which probably acts by modifying the affinity of catecholamines for the intragranular matrix. NO could modify the synaptic transmitter efficacy through a novel mechanism, which involves the regulation of the emptying of secretory vesicles. (+info)