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(1/35) Inhibitory effects of transforming growth factor-beta1 pretreatment on experimental pulmonary metastasis of MCS-1 Chinese hamster mesenchymal chondrosarcoma cells.

Recent studies have suggested that transforming growth factor(TGF)-beta1 acts as a multifunctional regulator of cell growth, and also modifies tumor progression and metastasis. In the present study, we investigated the effects of TGF-beta1 on the proliferation and experimental pulmonary metastasis of MCS-1. MCS-1 are undifferentiated type cloned tumor cells established from a mesenchymal chondrosarcoma which spontaneously occurred in the soft tissue of a female Chinese hamster. MCS-1 cells were pretreated with TGF-beta1 (0, 0.05, 0.5, 2, 10 ng/ml) for 72 hours in a medium containing 1% fetal bovine serum, then tested for in vitro growth by the MTT method, in vivo growth by subcutaneous inoculation into athymic nude mice (1 x 10(6) cells/mouse) and experimental pulmonary metastasis by injection into the lateral tail vein of athymic nude mice (5 x 10(4) cells/mouse). TGF-beta1 significantly inhibited in vitro growth of MCS-1, depending on its concentrations, and also experimental metastasis with maximal inhibition at 0.5 or 2 ng/ml treatment compared to untreated controls. TGF-beta1, however, was ineffective for in vivo subcutaneous growth of MCS-1. These results indicated that TGF-beta1 might be an inhibitor of metastasis of mesenchymal chondrosarcomas including other types of non-epitherial cartilage or bone formation tumors.  (+info)

(2/35) Cell differentiation and matrix gene expression in mesenchymal chondrosarcomas.

Mesenchymal chondrosarcomas are small-cell malignancies named as chondrosarcomas due to the focal appearance of cartilage islands. In this study, the use of in situ detection techniques on a large series of mesenchymal chondrosarcoma specimens allowed the identification of tumor-cell differentiation pathways in these neoplasms. We were able to trace all steps of chondrogenesis within mesenchymal chondrosarcoma by using characteristic marker genes of chondrocytic development. Starting from undifferentiated cells, which were negative for vimentin and any other mesenchymal marker, a substantial portion of the cellular (undifferentiated) tumor areas showed a chondroprogenitor phenotype with an onset of expression of vimentin and collagen type IIA. Cells in the chondroid areas showed the full expression panel of mature chondrocytes including type X collagen indicating focal hypertrophic differentiation of the neoplastic chondrocytes. Finally, evidence was found for transdifferentiation of the neoplastic chondrocytes to osteoblast-like cells in areas of neoplastic bone formation. These results establish mesenchymal chondrosarcoma as the very neoplasm of differentiating premesenchymal chondroprogenitor cells. The potential of neoplastic bone formation in mesenchymal chondrosarcoma introduces a new concept of neoplastic (chondrocytic) osteogenesis in musculoskeletal malignant neoplasms, which qualifies the old dogma that neoplastic bone/osteoid formation automatically implies the diagnosis of osteosarcoma.  (+info)

(3/35) Prostaglandin D synthase (beta-trace) in meningeal hemangiopericytoma.

The level of prostaglandin D synthase (PGDS), a major protein constituent of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), is altered in various brain diseases, including meningitis. However, its role in the brain remains unclear. PGDS is mainly synthesized in the arachnoid cells, the choroid plexus and oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system. Among brain tumors, meningiomas showed intense immunoreactivity to PGDS in the perinuclear region. Thus, PGDS has been considered a specific cell marker of meningioma. In this study, we examined 25 meningeal hemangiopericytomas (HPCs) and found that 16 of the tumors (64%) showed immunoreactivity for PGDS in the perinuclear region. For comparison, 15 meningiomas, 14 soft-tissue HPCs, 1 mesenchymal chondrosarcoma, 3 choroid plexus papillomas, and 7 oligodendrogliomas were also examined. Meningiomas showed positive immunoreactivity for PGDS in 13 cases (80%). Except for one case located at the sacrum, none of the other soft-tissue HPCs showed immunostaining for PGDS. Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma arises in the bones of the skull, and its histological pattern resembles that of HPC; however, it showed no immunoreactivity for PGDS. Neither choroid plexus papillomas nor oligodendrogliomas were immunopositive for PGDS. These findings suggest that meningeal HPCs may have a unique molecular phenotype that is distinct from that of the soft-tissue HPCs. The origin of meningeal HPCs may be more closely related to the arachnoid cells.  (+info)

(4/35) Chondrosarcoma of bone: an oncological and functional follow-up study.

We retrospectively analysed the course of 42 out of 45 patients suffering from different chondrosarcomas which were treated surgically. We found a prospective 5- and 10-year survival of 64% for both time intervals. Follow-up examination was possible in 21 of 45 patients. Most of them were staged as NED, one as AWD, and 8 of 45 were lost to follow-up. From 16 dead patients 12 died of the disease and 4 of unknown but not to tumor related reasons. Survival was depending significantly on the histopathological grade, and the stage according to Enneking's surgical staging system. Eleven out of forty-five patients developed metastases within a mean period of twelve months after surgery. The survival of these patients was significantly reduced. Patients with centrally located tumors exhibited a distinct but non-significant worse survival than those suffering from peripheral tumors. In 18% (8 of 45) recurrence of the tumor was evident within a mean period of 24 months (5-85). Functional evaluation was performed in 21 out of 28 alive patients. After a mean follow-up time of 72 months the mean score was 64% (23-100). Females exhibited a distinct but non-significant better result, the same was observed for peripheral locations compared to centrally located tumors. Regarding age, grade, and line of resection no tendency of any dependence was detected, but worst results were seen in those with a stage III tumor and dedifferentiated CS.  (+info)

(5/35) Translocation der(13;21)(q10;q10) in skeletal and extraskeletal mesenchymal chondrosarcoma.

Cytogenetic studies of mesenchymal chondrosarcoma are few and to date, no specific or recurrent aberrations have been found. In this investigation, the cytogenetic and molecular cytogenetic (spectral karyotypic and fluorescence in situ hybridization) findings for two mesenchymal chondrosarcomas, one arising skeletally and the other extraskeletally, are reported. An identical Robertsonian translocation involving chromosomes 13 and 21 [der(13;21)(q10;q10)] was detected in both cases, possibly representing a characteristic rearrangement for this histopathologic entity. Both cases also exhibited loss of all or a portion of chromosomes 8 and 20 and gain of all or a portion of chromosome 12. The observation of similar chromosomal abnormalities in both skeletal and extraskeletal mesenchymal chondrosarcoma supports a genetic as well as histopathologic relationship between these anatomically distinct neoplasms.  (+info)

(6/35) Retroperitoneal extraskeletal mesenchymal chondrosarcoma in a dog.

A young adult female Mastiff dog developed a large retroperitoneal mass, pleural effusion, and multiple pulmonary and pleural nodules. All masses were diagnosed as mesenchymal subtype chondrosarcomas, using histological and immunohistochemical criteria. Reports of canine extraskeletal mesenchymal chondrosarcomas (EMCs) are rare but involved animals less than 3 years of age in 60% of the cases. This is the first description of this type of tumor developing distant metastases. Evidence from this case and previous reports suggests that EMCs are associated with a poor prognosis.  (+info)

(7/35) Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma originating from the femoral vein.

Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma is a rare variant of chondrosarcomas characterized by a bimorphic pattern with areas of the undifferentiated malignant small cells and well differentiated cartilaginous islands.(1) It occurs most commonly in the bone but can also occur in the extraskeletal soft tissues, the brain, and the meninges. This type of tumor has also been described in the eyelids, parapharyngeal space, mediastinum, and the kidney.(1-5) An origin from the large vessels has not been reported in the medical literature. The authors report a case of mesenchymal chondrosarcoma originating from the femoral vein in a 28-year-old female patient, treated by the wide-margin resection.  (+info)

(8/35) Cytopathology of mesenchymal chondrosarcomas: a report and comparison of four patients.

BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma (MC) is an infrequent neoplasm, representing approximately 1% of all chondrosarcomas. Cytologic descriptions of MCs have been confined to rare case reports. In the current report, the authors describe their experience with the cytologic features of four MCs: two primary tumors and two metastatic lesions. METHODS: Four patients were diagnosed with MC at the authors' institution from 1994 to 2002. Three of four patients underwent fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy as part of their diagnosis; in the fourth patient, imprint cytology was performed. Each tumor also received histologic confirmation. RESULTS: The patients studied included three females and one male. In three patients, the tumor presented initially as a soft tissue mass; whereas, in the remaining patient, the MC presented in the tibia. FNA results demonstrated small, oval-to-spindled cells with high nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratios. Cells occurred singly and in clumps in a background of basophilic extracellular matrix. Histologic examination of each lesion demonstrated biphasic tumors, including focal areas of relatively mature cartilage formation as well as a small cell population. CONCLUSIONS: MC is a rare soft tissue tumor that occurs frequently in extraskeletal locations. FNA of these tumors can be diagnostic if the tumor is sampled appropriately and of critical features, such as the background extracellular matrix, are recognized. Given the propensity of these tumors to metastasize and the poor prognosis of patients with MC, early identification by FNA biopsy may allow earlier, more aggressive interventions.  (+info)