Synovial chondromatosis of the subcoracoid bursa.
Synovial chondromatosis, is the chondroid metaplasia of the synovial membrane. Large joints such as the knee and hip are most commonly involved. Extraarticular involvement is rarely described. Synovial chondromatosis may be associated with impingement syndrome of the shoulder. We report a case of synovial chondromatosis of the subcoracoid bursa, which resulted in impingement symptoms. (+info)
Synovial chondromatosis: the possible role of FGF 9 and FGF receptor 3 in its pathology.
Primary synovial chondromatosis (PSC) is a rare disorder of the synovium typified by cartilaginous nodule formation within the synovial membrane. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) is a recently described specific marker of mesenchymal precartilaginous stem cells. Expression patterns of FGFR3 and its specific ligand, fibroblast growth factor 9 (FGF 9), were evaluated both in situ and in cell cultures. Histologically, cells at the periphery of the cartilage nodules express FGFR3 and PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen). Elevated levels of FGF 9, its specific ligand, have been found in synovial fluids of patients with synovial chondromatosis. Synoviocytes but not chondrocytes from affected patients express FGF9 in culture. This pattern is absent in normal synovium and cartilage. Downregulation of FGF9 may provide a possible nonoperative therapy for PSC. (+info)
Fine-needle aspiration cytology of articular and periarticular lesions.
BACKGROUND: The cytologic diagnosis of joint and articular surface-based lesions traditionally has been accomplished by examination of fluids or effusions. Although exfoliative cytology remains an accurate diagnostic test, not all joint-based lesions will produce effusions that are amenable to this type of examination. Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) represents an excellent alternative to traditional cytologic or histologic methods of diagnosis in joint pathology. METHODS: The authors reviewed FNA materials for the period 1992-2001 from lesions of joint spaces and periarticular soft tissues. All diagnoses based on cytologic materials that were included in this study were confirmed with histologic follow-up. Cytologic and histologic materials were prepared using standard methods. RESULTS: The authors found six relatively common lesions that were amenable to diagnosis by FNA. These included rheumatoid nodule, gouty tophi, ganglion cysts, pigmented villonodular synovitis, synovial chondromatosis, and synovial sarcoma. There are potential pitfalls in discriminating gout from pseudogout and synovial chondromatosis from chondrosarcoma. CONCLUSIONS: In most instances, mass-producing lesions of the joint space or the periarticular soft tissues can be diagnosed successfully by FNA. The common lesions are easily recognizable and are cytologically distinctive. (+info)
Idiopathic synovial osteochondromatosis of the hip: radiographic and MR appearances in 15 patients.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the radiographic and MR appearance of idiopathic synovial osteochondromatosis of the hip. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Radiographs and MR images of 15 patients with idiopathic synovial osteochondromatosis of the hip were assessed. The former were analysed in terms of the presence of 1) juxta-articular calcified and/ or ossified bodies, 2) osteophytes, 3) bone erosion, 4) juxta-articular osteopenia, and 5) joint space narrowing, while for the latter, analysis focused on 1) the configuration of intra-articular bodies, 2) bone erosion, 3) synovial thickening, 4) conglomeration of intra-articular bodies, and 5) extra-articular extension. RESULTS: At hip radiography, juxta-articular calcified and/ or ossified bodies were seen in 12 of the 15 patients (80%), bone erosion in eight (53%), osteophytes in seven (47%), juxta-articular osteopenia in five (33%) and joint space narrowing in five (33%). In eight patients (53%), MR imaging depicted intra-articular bodies of focal low signal intensity at all pulse sequences, and areas of isointensity at T1WI and hyperintensity at T2WI. In three (20%), intra-articular bodies of focal low signal intensity and areas of hyperintensity at all pulse sequences were observed, with areas of iso-intensity at T1WI and hyperintensity at T2WI, while in four (27%), intra-articular bodies of only focal low signal intensity at all pulse sequences were apparent. Synovial thickening was present in 13 patients (87%), bone erosion in 11 (73%), conglomeration of the intra-articular bodies in 11 (73%), and an extra-articular herniation sac in six (40%). CONCLUSION: The most common radiographic finding of synovial osteochondromatosis of the hip was the presence of juxta-articular calcified and/ or ossified bodies. MR imaging depicted intra-articular bodies of focal low signal intensity at all pulse sequences, with areas of iso-intensity at T1WI and hyperintensity at T2WI. In addition, the presence of an extra-articular herniation sac was not uncommon. (+info)
Synovial chondromatosis of the hip: management with arthroscope-assisted synovectomy and removal of loose bodies: report of two cases.
Primary synovial chondromatosis is an uncommon disorder, and involvement of the hip joint is rare. The clinical symptoms are usually non-specific, and a clinical diagnosis of synovial chondromatosis of the hip may be difficult and delayed, especially before the ossifying nodules become evident. Loose bodies in the joint can cause secondary degenerative osteoarthritis of the hip. Currently, the recommended management is surgical removal of the loose bodies and a synovectomy without dislocation of the hip joint. Herein we report on 2 cases of synovial chondromatosis of the hip, which were managed with an arthroscope-assisted synovectomy and removal of the loose bodies. We believe this is an easy and safe method for management of this disorder. (+info)
Articular chondromatosis and chrondroid metaplasia in transgenic TAg mice.
The C3(1)/SV40 T antigen transgenic mouse model for which rapid mammary and prostate tumor development has been documented uses the FVB/N mouse as a background strain. In this study, where the background strain used was the C57BL/6J mouse, neither mammary nor prostate tumors developed over periods of up to 40 weeks. However, a disturbance of hyaline cartilage in joints was observed similar to that found in synovial chondromatosis in humans. In addition, cartilage thickening in the external ears and cartilaginous metaplasia of the ascending aorta also occurred. This suggests that rearrangement of the transgene occurred in breeding on the C57BL background, thus modifying its expression. It raises the possibility that the genetic changes induced by the SV40 T antigen transforming sequence are important in cartilage homeostasis. (+info)
Synovial chondromatosis of the temporomandibular joint: a clinical, radiological and histological study.
Synovial chondromatosis (SC) is a cartilaginous metaplasy of the mesenchymal remnants of the synovial tissue of the joints. It is characterized by the formation of cartilaginous nodules in the synovium and inside the articular space (loose bodies). SC mainly affects to big synovial joints such as the knee and the elbow, being uncommon the onset within the TMJ, where 75 cases have been published. The main symptoms are pain, inflammation, limitation of the movements of the jaw and crepitation. Different methods of diagnosis include panoramic radiograph, CT, MR and arthroscopy of the TMJ. We report a new case of unilateral SC of the TMJ, including diagnostic images, treatment performed and histological analysis. (+info)
Synovial chondromatosis of the temporomandibular joint with extension to the middle cranial fossa.
A rare case of synovial chondromatosis with extension to the middle cranial fossa is reported. Synovial chondromatosis, a benign disorder characterized by multiple cartilaginous, free-floating nodules that originate from the synovial membrane is not exclusive to the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). This condition is commonly seen in the axial skeleton and can involve multiple joints. In this case, synovial chondromatosis of the TMJ led to complete bony erosion of the glenoid fossa extending into the middle cranial fossa. Although plain radiographs showed the involvement of the joint, Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) provided more detailed information about the lesion in all three dimensions. This case demonstrates the value of CT and MRI in both the diagnosis and treatment planning. A review of previously reported cases of synovial chondromatosis with cranial extensions is included. (+info)