Enzyme replacement therapy in a murine model of Morquio A syndrome.
(9/36)Mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPS IVA) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by a deficiency of N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase (GALNS), leading to accumulation of keratan sulfate (KS) and chrondroitin-6-sulfate. The pharmacokinetics and biodistributions were determined for two recombinant human GALNSs produced in CHO cell lines: native GALNS and sulfatase-modifier-factor 1 (SUMF1) modified GALNS. Preclinical studies of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) by using two GALNS enzymes were performed on MPS IVA mice. The half-lives in blood circulation of two phosphorylated GALNS enzymes were similar (native, 2.4 min; SUMF1, 3.3 min). After intravenous doses of 250 units/g body weight were administered, each enzyme was primarily recovered in liver and spleen, with detectable activity in other tissues including bone and bone marrow. At 4 h post-injection, enzyme activity was retained in the liver, spleen, bone and bone marrow at levels that were 20-850% of enzyme activity in the wild-type mice. After intravenous doses of 250 units/g of native GALNS, and 250, 600 or 1000 units/g of SUMF1-GALNS were administered weekly for 12 weeks, MPS IVA mice showed marked reduction of storage in visceral organs, sinus lining cells in bone marrow, heart valves, ligaments and connective tissues. A dose-dependent clearance of storage material was observed in brain. The blood KS level assayed by tandem mass spectrometry was reduced nearly to normal level. These preclinical studies demonstrate the clearance of tissue and blood KS by administered GALNS, providing the in vivo rationale for the design of ERT trials in MPS IVA. (+info)
Distinct effects of N-acetylgalactosamine-4-sulfatase and galactose-6-sulfatase expression on chondroitin sulfates.
Extracellular enzymes of the genus Bacteroides.
(11/36)The extracellular production of hyaluronidase and chondroitin sulfatase was demonstrated in all of the subspecies of Bacteroides fragilis tested with the exception of B. fragilis subsp. vulgatus. Elastase was found only in one strain of B. coagulans tested. This appears to be the first report of these enzyme activities in this genus. Additional enzymes found to be produced by certain members othis genus were fibrinolysin, penicillinase, lysozyme, lecithinase, deoxyribonuclease, phosphatase, protease, and lipase. (+info)
Human liver N-acetylgalactosamine 6-sulphatase. Purification and characterization.
(12/36)Human N-acetylgalactosamine 6-sulphatase (EC 188.8.131.52), which is involved in the lysosomal degradation of the glycosaminoglycans keratan sulphate and chondroitin 6-sulphate, was purified more than 130,000-fold in 2.8% yield from liver by an eight-step column procedure. One major form was identified with a pI of 5.7 and a native molecular mass of 62 kDa by gel filtration. When analysed by SDS/PAGE, dithioerythritol-reduced enzyme contained polypeptides of molecular masses 57 kDa, 39 kDa and 19 kDa, whereas non-reduced enzyme contained a major polypeptide of molecular mass 70 kDa. It is proposed that active enzyme contains either the 57 kDa polypeptide or disulphide-linked 39 kDa and 19 kDa polypeptides. Minor amounts of other enzyme forms separated during the chromatofocusing step and the Blue A-agarose step were not further characterized. Purified N-acetylgalactosamine 6-sulphatase was inactive towards 4-methylumbelliferyl sulphate, but was active, with pH optima of 3.5-4.0, towards 6-sulphated oligosaccharide substrates. Km values of 12.5 and 50 microM and Vmax. values of 1.5 and 0.09 mumol/min per mg were determined with oligosaccharide substrates derived from chondroitin 6-sulphate and keratan sulphate respectively. Sulphate, phosphate and chloride ions were inhibitors of enzyme activity towards both substrates, with 50 microM-Na2SO4 giving 50% inhibition towards the chondroitin 6-sulphate trisaccharide substrate. (+info)
Enzymatic and hemolytic properties of Propionibacterium acnes and related bacteria.
(13/36)The production of chondroitin sulfatase, hyaluronidase, deoxyribonuclease, gelatinase, phosphatase, lecithinase, and hemolysins was examined in 95 strains of Propionibacterium acnes and four related species of anaerobic, respectively, microaerophilic coryneform bacteria (P. avidum, P. lymphophilum, P. granulosum, and Corynebacterium minutissimum). All enzymes could be demonstrated in at least one representative of the species tested. Those Propionibacterium species most frequently found in acne vulgaris lesions, i.e., P. acnes and P. granulosum, proved to be the most active organisms concerning the production of the enzymes tested. P. avidum, on the other hand, showed the highest rate of hemolytic activity. (+info)
Enhancement of drug delivery: enzyme-replacement therapy for murine Morquio A syndrome.
Enzyme replacement in a human model of mucopolysaccharidosis IVA in vitro and its biodistribution in the cartilage of wild type mice.
Tandem mass spectrometry for the direct assay of lysosomal enzymes in dried blood spots: application to screening newborns for mucopolysaccharidosis IVA.