N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase in man. Absence of the enzyme in Morquio disease. (33/36)

Human N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase (6-sulfatase) activity is measured by using as a substrate a sulfated tetrasaccharide obtained by digesting purified chondroitin-6-sulfate (C-6-S) with testicular hyaluronidase. The amount of inorganic sulfate released is measured turbidimetrically. The enzyme from human kidney has a pH optimum of 4.8; its activity is augmented by low levels of NaCl and inhibited by phosphate and high levels of NaCl. Free glucuronate, acetylgalactosamine, inorganic sulfate, polymeric C-6-S, or tetrasaccharide obtained from chondroitin-4-sulfate do not affect the enzyme activity. The method may be used for the diagnosis of Morquio disease since extracts of Morquio fibroblasts are devoid of 6-sulfatase activity.  (+info)

The morquio A syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis IVA) gene maps to 16q24.3. (34/36)

The gene for N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfatase, the deficiency of which results in Morquio A syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA), was assigned to chromosome 16 at band q24.3 by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Localization of this band was confirmed by PCR analysis of a somatic cell hybrid panel used for fine mapping of chromosome 16.  (+info)

Mucopolysaccharidosis IVA: four new exonic mutations in patients with N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase deficiency. (35/36)

We report four new mutations in Japanese patients with mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPSIVA) who were heterozygous for a common double gene deletion. A nonsense mutation of CAG to TAG at codon 148 in exon 4 was identified, resulting in a change of Q to a stop codon and three missense mutations. V (GTC) to A (GCC) at codon 138 in exon 4, P (CCC) to S (TCC) at codon 151 in exon 5, and P (CCC) to L (CTC) at codon 151 in exon 5. Introduction of these mutations into the normal GALNS cDNA and transient expression in cultured fibroblasts resulted in a significant decrease in the enzyme activity. V138A and Q148X mutations result in changes of restriction site, which were analyzed by restriction-enzyme assay. P151S and P151L mutations that did not alter the restriction site were detected by direct sequencing or allele specific oligohybridization. Detection of the double gene deletion was initially done using Southern blots and was confirmed by PCR. Haplotypes were determined using seven polymorphisms to the GALNS locus in families with the double gene deletion. Haplotype analysis showed that the common double gene deletion occurred on a single haplotype, except for some variation in a VNTR-like polymorphism. This finding is consistent with a common founder for all individuals with this mutation.  (+info)

Association of N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase with the multienzyme lysosomal complex of beta-galactosidase, cathepsin A, and neuraminidase. Possible implication for intralysosomal catabolism of keratan sulfate. (36/36)

N-Acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase (GALNS) catalyzes the first step of intralysosomal keratan sulfate (KS) catabolism. In Morquio type A syndrome GALNS deficiency causes the accumulation of KS in tissues and results in generalized skeletal dysplasia in affected patients. We show that in normal cells GALNS is in a 1.27-MDa complex with three other lysosomal hydrolases: beta-galactosidase, alpha-neuraminidase, and cathepsin A (protective protein). GALNS copurifies with the complex by different chromatography techniques: affinity chromatography on both cathepsin A-binding and beta-galactosidase-binding columns, gel filtration, and chromatofocusing. Anti-human cathepsin A rabbit antiserum coprecipitates GALNS together with cathepsin A, beta-galactosidase, and alpha-neuraminidase in both a purified preparation of the 1. 27-MDa complex and crude glycoprotein fraction from human placenta extract. Gel filtration analysis of fibroblast extracts of patients deficient in either beta-galactosidase (beta-galactosidosis) or cathepsin A (galactosialidosis), which accumulate KS, demonstrates that the 1.27-MDa complex is disrupted and that GALNS is present only in free homodimeric form. The GALNS activity and cross-reacting material are reduced in the fibroblasts of patients affected with galactosialidosis, indicating that the complex with cathepsin A may protect GALNS in the lysosome. We suggest that the 1.27-MDa complex of lysosomal hydrolases is essential for KS catabolism and that the disruption of this complex may be responsible for the KS accumulation in beta-galactosidosis and galactosialidosis patients.  (+info)