Inhibition of tubulinyl-tyrosine carboxypeptidase by brain soluble RNA and proteoglycan. (25/36)

Rat brain extracts contain two heat-stable, nondialyzable inhibitors of tubulinyl-tyrosine carboxypeptidase. One of the inhibitors was sensitive to ribonuclease and insensitive to trypsin and pronase, indicating that the inhibitor is RNA. This is supported by the observation that purified RNA from rat brain inhibited the enzyme activity to the same extent as similar amounts of the endogenous RNA. Similar results were obtained with calf liver RNA. The other inhibitor was purified by chromatography on a DEAE-Sephadex and identified as proteoglycan. The elimination of the protein moiety of the proteoglycan resulted in a small increase of its inhibitory activity. Glycosaminoglycan was released from the proteoglycan by beta elimination, indicating that the linkage between glycosaminoglycan and the protein moiety is through an O-glycosidic bond. The glycosaminoglycan contains uronic acid, hexosamine and sulfate in a molar ratio of 1:1.01:0.99, respectively. Treatment of the glycosaminoglycan with chondroitinase ABC completely abolished its inhibitory activity. Chondroitin sulfate A, chondroitin sulfate B, chondroitin sulfate C, and the brain glycosaminoglycan inhibited tubulinyl-tyrosine carboxypeptidase to the same extent when used in comparable amounts.  (+info)

Impaired degradation of keratan sulphate by Morquio A fibroblasts. (26/36)

Upon incubation of keratan [35S]sulphate with normal fibroblasts both [35S]sulphate and N-acetylglucosamine 6-[35S]sulphate are liberated. From the products obtained after digestion with various mutant fibroblasts and with purified N-acetylgalactosamine 6-sulphate sulphatase we suggest that (i) [35S]sulphate is released almost exclusively from galactose 6-sulphate residues; (ii) N-acetylgalactosamine 6-sulphate sulphatase exhibits galactose 6-sulphate sulphatase activity; (iii) both sulphatase activities are deficient in Morquio disease type A.  (+info)

Hydrolytic enzymes of anaerobic bacteria isolated from human infections. (27/36)

Thirty-three strains of anaerobic bacteria isolated from human clinical specimens were examined for the presence of heparinase, hyaluronidase, chondroitin sulfatase, gelatinase, collagenase, fibrinolysin, lecithinase, and lipase activities. Pronounced heparinase activity was limited to species of the genus Bacteroides. A number of species of the genera Bacteroides and Clostridium produced hyaluronidase and chondroitin sulfatase. Gelatinase, collagenase, and fibrinolysin activities were encountered in isolates of the genera Bacteroides, Clostridium, and Peptostreptococcus. All strains capable of degrading collagen also hydrolyzed other protein substrates. Lipolytic activity was minimal among these anaerobic bacteria. No specific hydrolytic activity was consistently associated with the isolates.  (+info)

High-performance liquid chromatography of pyridylamino derivatives of unsaturated disaccharides produced from chondroitin sulfate isomers by chondroitinases. (28/36)

A sensitive method was developed for the separation and quantitation of four unsaturated disaccharides (delta Di-0S, delta Di-4S, delta Di-6S, and delta Di-diS) by high performance liquid chromatography. The unsaturated disaccharides were coupled with a fluorescent compound, 2-aminopyridine. Complete separation of the resulting pyridylamino derivatives was achieved on a column of muBondapak-C18 with 8 mM KH2PO4-Na2HPO4 (pH 6.0)/methanol (30/l, by volume) as a mobile phase. There was a linear relationship between the fluorescence emission (peak height), and the amount of each authentic disaccharide used for the coupling reaction. This method was applied to analyze commercially available chondroitin sulfates A and C, dermatan sulfate, and urinary glycosaminoglycans obtained from patients with mucopolysaccharidosis after digestion with chondroitinases. The data indicated that the present method is useful for the separation and quantitation of nmol-pmol levels of the unsaturated disaccharides produced from chondroitin sulfate isomers by chondroitinases and can be used for their structural characterization.  (+info)

Morquio syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis IV B) associated with beta-galactosidase deficiency. Report of two cases. (29/36)

Two male patients, aged 6 and 25, both with normal intelligence and absence of neurological abnormalities, exhibited dysostosis multiplex, dwarfism, odontoid anomalies, cloudy corneas, exessive excretion of keratan sulfate, and abnormal urinary oligosaccharides. Leukocytes and fibroblasts of both patients were deficient in acid beta-galactosidase (beta-gal) and normal in N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase, the deficient enzyme in classical Morquio syndrome. The beta-gal deficiency was not due to an endogenous inhibitor, and the parents exhibited intermediate activities. Deficient beta-gal activity was observed toward p-nitrophenyl-beta-galactoside, 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-galactoside (4 MU-beta-gal), lactose, GM1 ganglioside, keratan sulfate, and asialofetuin (ASF). Under standard assay conditions, the residual activity was similar for all substrates tested. Toward p-nitrophenyl-beta-glactoside, the mutant enzyme behaved as a Km variant.  (+info)

Activities of N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase in liver from two sisters with morquio syndrome. (30/36)

A 6-sulfated tetrasaccharide obtained by digesting chondroitin-6-sulfate with testicular hyaluronidase was used as a substrate for the determination of N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase activity. The activity was not detected in liver obtained from the elder sister with clinically classic Morquio syndrome and 4.7% of the control in liver from the younger sister with the same disease.  (+info)

Expression, purification and characterization of recombinant human N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulphatase. (31/36)

Full-length cDNA sequences encoding human N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulphatase were stably expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells under the transcriptional control of the human polypeptide chain elongation factor 1 alpha gene promoter. A clonal cell line overexpressing recombinant N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulphatase to a level of approx. 3 mg/l of culture medium was isolated. The secreted precursor enzyme was purified to homogeneity by a two-column procedure with an overall yield of 53% of the activity. The physical and catalytic parameters of the recombinant enzyme were similar to those of the mature form isolated from liver. On SDS/PAGE and gel filtration, recombinant N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulphatase had a native molecular mass of 58-60 kDa. Recombinant N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulphatase was endocytosed by mucopolysaccharidosis IVA fibroblasts via the mannose-6-phosphate receptor-mediated pathway and was efficiently localized to lysosomes.  (+info)

Mucopolysaccharidosis IVA: identification of a common missense mutation I113F in the N-Acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase gene. (32/36)

Mucopolysaccharidosis IVA is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder caused by a deficiency of N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase. The recent isolation and characterization of cDNA and genomic sequences encoding GALNS has facilitated identification of the molecular lesions that cause MPS IVA. We identified a common missense mutation among Caucasian MPS IVA patients. The mutation was originally detected by SSCP, and successive sequencing revealed an A-->T transversion at nt 393. This substitution altered the isoleucine at position 113 to phenylalanine (I113F) in the 622 amino acid GALNS protein and was associated with a severe phenotype in a homozygote. Compound heterozygotes with one I113F-allele mutation have a wide range of clinical phenotypes. Transfection experiments in GALNS-deficient fibroblasts revealed that the mutation drastically reduces the enzyme activity of GALNS. Allele-specific oligonucleotide or SSCP analysis indicated that this mutation accounted for 22.5% (9/40) of unrelated MPS IVA chromosomes from 23 Caucasian patients, including 6 consanguineous cases. Of interest, the I1e 113-->Phe substitution occurred in only Caucasian MPS IVA patients and in none of the GALNS alleles of 20 Japanese patients. These findings identify a frequent missense mutation among MPS IVA patients of Caucasian ancestry, that results in severe MPS IVA when homoallelic, and will facilitate molecular diagnosis of most such patients and identification of heterozygous carriers. In addition to this common mutation, 10 different point mutations and 2 small deletions were detected, suggesting allelic heterogeneity in GALNS gene.  (+info)