Proteoglycan aggregates and proteoglycan subunits were extracted from bovine articular cartilage with guanidine-HC1 folowed by fractionation by equilibrium centrifugation in cesium chloride density gradients. The distribution of chondroitin sulfates (CS) in the cartilage proteoglycans was studied at the disaccharide level by digestion with chondroitinases. In the proteoglycan aggregate fraction, it was observed that the proportion of 4-sulfated disaccharide units to total CS increased from the bottom to the top fractions, whereas that of 6-sulfated disaccharide units was in the reverse order. Thus, the ratio of 4-sulfated disaccharide units to 6-sulfated disaccharide units increased significantly with decreasing density. The proportion of non-sulfated disaccharide units to total CS tended to increase with increasing density. These data indicate a polydisperse distribution of CS chains, under the conditions used here, in proteoglycan aggregates from bovine articular cartilage. (+info)
(2/460) Sulfate incorporation from ascorbate 2-sulfate into chondroitin sulfate by embryonic chick cartilage epiphyses.
Radioactivity was significantly incorporated from ascorbate 2-[35S]sulfate into chondroitin sulfate by embryonic chick cartilage epiphyses. The extent of incorporation was comparable with that from inorganic [35S]sulfate. The radioactive chondroitin sulfate formed from ascorbate 2-[35S]sulfate gave two radioactive disaccharides on chondroitinase-ABC [EC 22.214.171.124] digestion. The incorporation was markedly decreased by inorganic sulfate. The time course of incorporation from ascorbate 2-[35S]sulfate and inorganic [35S]sulfate into chondroitin sulfate and the constituent disaccharides suggest that the incorporation rates from the two radioactive substances are different. (+info)
(3/460) Chondroitin sulphation patterns in synovial fluid in osteoarthritis subsets.
OBJECTIVES: To determine concentrations of chondroitin sulphate (CS) disaccharides in knee synovial fluid (SF) from normal subjects and patients with osteoarthritis (OA) or rheumatoid arthritis (RA), to test whether these variables differ between different diseases and subsets of OA. METHODS: OA was subdivided into large joint OA (LJOA), nodal generalised OA (NGOA), and OA with calcium pyrophosphate crystal deposition (CPA), with 25, 9, and 11 people in each subset respectively. The SF of 13 normal subjects was also volunteered for analysis along with 15 RA patients. Clinical assessment of inflammation (0-6) was undertaken on OA and RA knees. Concentrations of unsaturated CS disaccharides Deltadi6S and Deltadi4S were measured by capillary zone electrophoresis. RESULTS: Concentrations of Deltadi6S were lower in RA (5.90 ng/ml) and OA (13.24 ng/ml) fluids compared with normal (21.0 ng/ml) but no significant differences were seen between disease and normal fluids for Deltadi4S (about 4-6 ng/ml). The ratio of Deltadi6S:Deltadi4S were RA
(4/460) Combined effect of Interceed and 5-fluorouracil on delayed adjustable strabismus surgery.
AIMS/BACKGROUND: To discover a more reliable method of performing delayed suture adjustment as a basis to investigate whether delayed adjustment actually provides more stable results. In order to prevent the formation of postoperative adhesions and delay the time of adjustment, an animal study was performed to determine the combined effect of physical barriers, Viscoat and Interceed, and a pharmacological agent, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). METHODS: 38 rabbit eyes were divided into three groups. After recession of the superior rectus muscle (SRM), 5-FU was applied beneath and over the SRM in group 5-FU. Group I-f had Interceed and 5-FU and group I-fv, Interceed, 5-FU, and Viscoat. Delayed adjustment was performed once on each SRM at 1, 2, and 3 weeks postoperatively. The possible length and the necessary force to adjust as well as the degree of adhesions were recorded. RESULTS: 5-FU delayed the adjustment for up to 1 week after surgery in three out of four eyes. Combined use of Interceed and 5-FU could delay the adjustment for up to 1 week after surgery in three out of five eyes. Addition of Viscoat could delay the adjustment for up to 1 week after surgery in four out of five eyes. Adjustment was possible on only one of four eyes thereafter. CONCLUSIONS: Combined use of Interceed, 5-FU, and Viscoat could delay the adjustment in rabbits until 1 week postoperatively. (+info)
(5/460) Purification and characterization of fetal bovine serum beta-N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyltransferase and beta-D-glucuronyltransferase involved in chondroitin sulfate biosynthesis.
beta-N-Acetylgalactosaminyltransferase II and beta-glucuronyltransferase II, involved in chondroitin sulfate biosynthesis, transfer an N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) and glucuronic acid (GlcA) residue, respectively, through beta-linkages to an acceptor chondroitin oligosaccharide derived from the repeating disaccharide region of chondroitin sulfate. They were copurified from fetal bovine serum approximately 2500-fold and 850-fold, respectively, by sequential chromatographies on Red A-agarose, phenyl-Sepharose, S-Sepharose and wheat germ agglutinin-agarose. Identical and inseparable chromatographic profiles of both glycosyltransferase activities obtained through the above chromatographic steps and gel filtration suggest that the purified enzyme activities are tightly coupled, which could imply a single enzyme with dual transferase activities; beta-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase and beta-glucuronyltransferase, reminiscent of the heparan sulfate polymerase reaction. However, when a polymerization reaction was performed in vitro with the purified serum enzyme preparation under the polymerization conditions recently developed for the chondroitin-synthesizing system, derived from human melanoma cells, each monosaccharide transfer took place, but no polymerization occurred. These results may suggest that the purified serum enzyme preparation contains both beta-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase II and beta-glucuronyltransferase II activities on a single polypeptide or on the respective polypeptides forming an enzyme complex, but is different from that obtained from melanoma cells in that it transfers a single GalNAc or GlcA residue but does not polymerize chondroitin. (+info)
(6/460) Demonstration of glycosaminoglycans in Caenorhabditis elegans.
A considerable amount (approximately 1.6 microg from 1 mg of dried nematode) of non-sulfated chondroitin, two orders of magnitude less yet an appreciable amount of heparan sulfate, and no hyaluronate were found in Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes. The chondroitin chains were heterogeneous in size, being shorter than that of whale cartilage chondroitin sulfate. The disaccharide composition analysis of heparan sulfate revealed diverse sulfation including glucosamine 2-N-sulfation, glucosamine 6-O-sulfation and uronate 2-O-sulfation. These results imply that chondroitin and heparan sulfate are involved in fundamental biological processes. (+info)
(7/460) Microanalysis of enzyme digests of hyaluronan and chondroitin/dermatan sulfate by fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis (FACE).
Hyaluronan and chondroitin/dermatan sulfate are glycosaminoglycans that play major roles in the biomechanical properties of a wide variety of tissues, including cartilage. A chondroitin/dermatan sulfate chain can be divided into three regions: (1) a single linkage region oligosaccharide, through which the chain is attached to its proteoglycan core protein, (2) numerous internal repeat disaccharides, which comprise the bulk of the chain, and (3) a single nonreducing terminal saccharide structure. Each of these regions of a chondroitin/dermatan sulfate chain has its own level of microheterogeneity of structure, which varies with proteoglycan class, tissue source, species, and pathology. We have developed rapid, simple, and sensitive protocols for detection, characterization and quantitation of the saccharide structures from the internal disaccharide and nonreducing terminal regions of hyaluronan and chondroitin/dermatan sulfate chains. These protocols rely on the generation of saccharide structures with free reducing groups by specific enzymatic treatments (hyaluronidase/chondroitinase) which are then quantitatively tagged though their free reducing groups with the fluorescent reporter, 2-aminoacridone. These saccharide structures are further characterized by modification through additional enzymatic (sulfatase) or chemical (mercuric ion) treatments. After separation by fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis, the relative fluorescence in each band is quantitated with a cooled, charge-coupled device camera for analysis. Specifically, the digestion products identified are (1) unsaturated internal Deltadisaccharides including DeltaDiHA, DeltaDi0S, DeltaDi2S, DeltaDi4S, DeltaDi6S, DeltaDi2,4S, DeltaDi2,6S, DeltaDi4,6S, and DeltaDi2,4,6S; (2) saturated nonreducing terminal disaccharides including DiHA, Di0S, Di4S and Di6S; and (3) nonreducing terminal hexosamines including glcNAc, galNAc, 4S-galNAc, 6S-galNAc, and 4, 6S-galNAc. (+info)
(8/460) Glycosaminoglycan conformation: do aqueous molecular dynamics simulations agree with x-ray fiber diffraction?
Glycosaminoglycan-protein interactions are biologically important and require an appreciation of glycan molecular shape in solution, which is presently unavailable. In previous studies we found strong similarity between aqueous molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and published x-ray diffraction refinements of hyaluronan. We have applied a similar approach here to chondroitin and dermatan, attempting to clarify some of the issues raised by the x-ray diffraction literature relating to chondroitin and dermatan sulfate. We predict that chondroitin has the same beta(1-->4) linkage conformation as hyaluronan, and that their average beta(1-->3) conformations differ. This is explained by changes in hydrogen-bonding across this linkage, resulting from its axial hydroxyl, causing a different sampling of left-handed helices in chondroitin (2.5- to 3.5-fold) as compared with hyaluronan (3.0- to 4.0-fold). Few right-handed helices, which lack intramolecular hydrogen-bonds, were sampled during our MD simulations. Thus, we propose that the 8-fold helix observed in chondroitin-6-sulfate, represented in the literature as an 8(3) helix (right-handed), though it has never been refined, is more likely to be 8(5) (left-handed) helix. Molecular dynamics simulations implied that (4)C(1) and (2)S(O), but not (1)C(4), forms of iduronate could be used in refinements of dermatan x-ray fiber diffraction patterns. Current models of 8-fold dermatan sulfate chains containing (4)C(1) iduronate refine to right-handed helices, which possess no intramolecular hydrogen-bonds. However, MD simulations predict that models containing (2)S(O) iduronate could provide better (8(5) helix) starting structures for refinement. Thus, the 8-fold dermatan sulfate refinement (8(3) helix) could be in error. (+info)