The Conradi-Hunermann-Happle syndrome (CDPX2) and emopamil binding protein: novel mutations, and somatic and gonadal mosaicism.
The Conradi-Hunermann-Happle (CHH) syndrome (X-chromosomal dominant chondrodysplasia punctata type II; MIM 302960) is an X-linked dominant disorder that is characterized by ichthyosis, chondrodysplasia punctata, cataracts and short stature. The disease occurs almost exclusively in females and shows increased disease expression in successive generations (anticipation). Recently, causative mutations in the emopamil binding protein (EBP) have been identified. To better appreciate the genetics of this syndrome we analyzed the EBP gene in seven independent families using PCR, conformation-sensitive gel electrophoresis, direct sequencing and restriction enzyme analysis. We found five novel mutations: three nonsense mutations in exon 2 and exon 3 and two frameshift mutations, one deletion in exon 4 and an insertion in exon 5. In two families, known mutations affecting exon 2 were identified. Surprisingly, we failed to detect the mutation in a grandmother exhibiting minor disease symptoms such as sectorial cataract and attribute this to gonadal and somatic mosaicism. Gonadal mosaicism appeared also to be involved in the case of healthy parents having two affected girls, one of whom died due to the disease. We conclude that gonadal mosaicism has to be considered when dealing with seemingly sporadic cases. (+info)
X-Linked dominant disorders of cholesterol biosynthesis in man and mouse.
The X-linked dominant male-lethal mouse mutations tattered and bare patches are homologous to human X-linked dominant chondrodysplasia punctata and CHILD syndrome, rare human skeletal dysplasias. These disorders also affect the skin and can cause cataracts and microphthalmia in surviving, affected heterozygous females. They have recently been shown to result from mutations in genes encoding enzymes involved in sequential steps in the conversion of lanosterol to cholesterol. This review will summarize clinical features of the disorders and describe recent biochemical and molecular investigations that have resulted in the elucidation of the involved genes and their metabolic pathway. Finally, speculations about possible mechanisms of pathogenesis will be provided. (+info)
A case of chondrodysplasia punctata with features of osteogenesis imperfecta type II.
The osteogenesis imperfecta syndromes constitute a group of heterogeneous, heritable skeletal dysplasias. Of the 4 types, type II is the most severe, with an incidence of 1 per 55,000. It is characterized by malformed bones secondary to abnormal collagen type I synthesis. Affected fetuses are divided into 3 groups: A, B, and C. All groups have long bones described as "wrinkled" or "crumpled" secondary to repeated fractures. Many bones also show evidence of demineralization, which is especially evident in the bones of the face and calvaria. In groups A and C, the chest is generally small, with thickened and shortened ribs, and each rib has characteristic "beading" patterns secondary to repeated fracturing. Sonography has traditionally been successful in the diagnosis of osteogenesis imperfecta at an early gestational age. Chondrodysplasia punctata describes a heterogeneous group of skeletal disorders characterized by abnormal mineralization of bones during gestation. There are many different causes of it, but some of the specific subtypes include rhizomelic, X-linked dominant (also known as Conradi-Hunermann syndrome), X-linked recessive, and tibia-metacarpal. We report a case of severe X-linked dominant chondrodysplasia punctata, which sonographically had common features with osteogenesis imperfecta type II. (+info)
Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and molecular genetic studies in families with the Conradi-Hunermann-Happle syndrome.
The Conradi-Hunermann-Happle syndrome is an X-linked dominant disease that is due to mutations in the gene for emopamil binding protein. Emopamil binding protein is a Delta8-Delta7 sterol isomerase and plays a pivotal role in the final steps of cholesterol biosynthesis. We wanted to know to what extent this X-linked dominant enzyme defect has functional consequences at the biochemical level and whether it is possible to predict the clinical phenotype from serum sterol measurements. Therefore we performed sterol biochemical studies in 11 Conradi-Hunermann-Happle syndrome families and compared the results obtained to the clinical and molecular genetic findings. To assess disease severity a score considering bone and skin involvement and further features was used. For evaluation of the functional consequences we studied serum samples using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. For mutation screening we analyzed the emopamil binding protein gene using polymerase chain reaction, heteroduplex analysis of all exons, direct sequencing, and restriction enzyme analysis. Mutations in the emopamil binding protein gene were found in all 11 families including seven novel mutations affecting exons 2, 4, and 5. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed markedly elevated levels of 8-dehydrocholesterol and of cholest-8(9)-en-3beta-ol and helped to identify somatic mosaicism in a clinically unaffected man. The extent of the metabolic alterations in the serum, however, do not allow prediction of the clinical phenotype, nor the genotype. This lack of correlation may be due to differences in X-inactivation between different tissues of the same patient and/or loss of the mutant clone by outgrowth of proficient clones after some time. (+info)
Fetal musculoskeletal malformations with a poor outcome: ultrasonographic, pathologic, and radiographic findings.
The early and accurate antenatal diagnosis of fetal musculoskeletal malfomations with a poor outcome has important implications for the management of a pregnancy. Careful ultrasonographic examination of a fetus helps detect such anomalies, and a number of characteristic features may suggest possible differential diagnoses. During the last five years, we have encountered 39 cases of such anomalies, and the typical prenatal ultrasonographic and pathologic findings of a number of those are described in this article. (+info)
Vitreoretinopathy with phalangeal epiphyseal dysplasia, a type II collagenopathy resulting from a novel mutation in the C-propeptide region of the molecule.
A large family with dominantly inherited rhegmatogenous retinal detachment, premature arthropathy, and development of phalangeal epiphyseal dysplasia, resulting in brachydactyly was linked to COL2A1, the gene encoding proalpha1(II) collagen. Mutational analysis of the gene by exon sequencing identified a novel mutation in the C-propeptide region of the molecule. The glycine to aspartic acid change occurred in a region that is highly conserved in all fibrillar collagen molecules. The resulting phenotype does not fit easily into pre-existing subgroups of the type II collagenopathies, which includes spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, and the Kniest, Strudwick, and Stickler dysplasias. (+info)
Disorders of cholesterol biosynthesis: prototypic metabolic malformation syndromes.
Since 1998, five disorders involving enzyme defects in post-squalene cholesterol biosynthesis have been identified-desmosterolosis, X-linked dominant chondrodysplasia punctata, CHILD syndrome, lathosterolosis, and hydrops-ectopic calcification-moth-eaten skeletal dysplasia. They join the most common cholesterol biosynthetic disorder, Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome, whose underlying defect was identified in 1993. All are associated with major developmental malformations that are unusual for metabolic disorders. The existence of mouse models for five of these disorders is beginning to enable more detailed developmental and in vitro studies examining the mechanisms involved in disease pathogenesis. In this review, an overview of the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway will be presented. Clinical features of the human disorders and mouse models of post-squalene cholesterol biosynthesis will then be discussed. (+info)
Subcellular localisation and processing of non-specific lipid transfer protein are not aberrant in Rhizomelic Chondrodysplasia Punctata fibroblasts.
The import into peroxisomes and maturation of peroxisomal 3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase are impaired in patients with the Rhizomelic form of Chondrodysplasia Punctata (RCDP). Here we show by means of immunoblotting and subcellular fractionation that non-specific lipid transfer protein (nsLTP), another peroxisomal protein synthesised as a larger precursor, is localised in peroxisomes and is present as the mature protein in RCDP fibroblasts. Thus the component of the import machinery defective in RCDP is not required for the import of nsLTP into peroxisomes. (+info)