Report of a mucopolysaccharidosis occurring in Australian aborigines.
The first 2 reported cases of a mucopolysaccharidosis occurring in an Australian aboriginal family are presented. Though these children had the characteristic morphological features of the Hurler syndrome, enzyme assay of cultured fibroblasts showed normal levels of alpha-L-iduronidase and decreased activity of arylsulphatase B. Thus, they represented the Hurler syndrome clinically, while they had the enzyme defect of the Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome, and they may represent a new severe form of the Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome. The parents of these children were first cousins. Though the children were not full blood aborigines, examination of the pedigree indicates that the gene originated in the common aboriginal family. (+info)
Microanalysis of enzyme digests of hyaluronan and chondroitin/dermatan sulfate by fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis (FACE).
Hyaluronan and chondroitin/dermatan sulfate are glycosaminoglycans that play major roles in the biomechanical properties of a wide variety of tissues, including cartilage. A chondroitin/dermatan sulfate chain can be divided into three regions: (1) a single linkage region oligosaccharide, through which the chain is attached to its proteoglycan core protein, (2) numerous internal repeat disaccharides, which comprise the bulk of the chain, and (3) a single nonreducing terminal saccharide structure. Each of these regions of a chondroitin/dermatan sulfate chain has its own level of microheterogeneity of structure, which varies with proteoglycan class, tissue source, species, and pathology. We have developed rapid, simple, and sensitive protocols for detection, characterization and quantitation of the saccharide structures from the internal disaccharide and nonreducing terminal regions of hyaluronan and chondroitin/dermatan sulfate chains. These protocols rely on the generation of saccharide structures with free reducing groups by specific enzymatic treatments (hyaluronidase/chondroitinase) which are then quantitatively tagged though their free reducing groups with the fluorescent reporter, 2-aminoacridone. These saccharide structures are further characterized by modification through additional enzymatic (sulfatase) or chemical (mercuric ion) treatments. After separation by fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis, the relative fluorescence in each band is quantitated with a cooled, charge-coupled device camera for analysis. Specifically, the digestion products identified are (1) unsaturated internal Deltadisaccharides including DeltaDiHA, DeltaDi0S, DeltaDi2S, DeltaDi4S, DeltaDi6S, DeltaDi2,4S, DeltaDi2,6S, DeltaDi4,6S, and DeltaDi2,4,6S; (2) saturated nonreducing terminal disaccharides including DiHA, Di0S, Di4S and Di6S; and (3) nonreducing terminal hexosamines including glcNAc, galNAc, 4S-galNAc, 6S-galNAc, and 4, 6S-galNAc. (+info)
Slow reacting substance as a preformed mediator from human lung.
Homogenates from human lung contained a preformed slow reacting substance (pSRS). The pattern of contraction on the guinea-pig ileum by pSRS was indistinguishable from that of SRS-A. The activity of pSRS could not be attributed to the presence of K+, Na+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions, or any prostaglandin including PGF2 or its 15-oxo derivative. As with SRS-A, pSRS could be absorbed onto Amberlite XAD-2 and silicic acid. Both were eluted from the former with 80 per cent ethanol and from the latter with a mixture of ethanol, ammonia and water. Both pSRS and SRS-A were resistant to the action of NaOH whereas their activities were destroyed by boiling in HCl. Arylsulphatase II B destroyed the activities of both pSRS and SRS-A. An antagonist of SRS-A, FPL55712, inhibited the action of pSRS at comparable concentrations to that of SRS-A. These experiments suggest that pSRS and SRS-A are identical. Thus SRS joins histamine and ECF-A as a preformed mediator. Although SRS was present in a preformed state the amount of material extractable was more than doubled by the anaphylactic reaction. The extraction of slow reacting substance from human lung without apparent requirement for antigen or antibody points to a possible role of this mediator in inflammatory reactions evoked by mechanisms independent of IgE and other tissue-sensitizing antibodies. (+info)
Correction of human mucopolysaccharidosis type-VI fibroblasts with recombinant N-acetylgalactosamine-4-sulphatase.
A full-length human N-acetylgalactosamine-4-sulphatase (4-sulphatase) cDNA clone was constructed and expressed in CHO-DK1 cells under the transcriptional control of the Rous sarcoma virus long terminal repeat. A clonal cell line expressing high activities of human 4-sulphatase was isolated. The maturation and processing of the human enzyme in this transfected CHO cell line showed it to be identical with that seen in normal human skin fibroblasts. The high-uptake precursor form of the recombinant enzyme was purified from the medium of the transfected cells treated with NH4Cl and was shown to be efficiently endocytosed by control fibroblasts and by fibroblasts from a mucopolysaccharidosis type-VI (MPS VI) patient. Enzyme uptake was inhibitable by mannose 6-phosphate. After uptake, the enzyme was processed normally in both normal and MPS VI fibroblasts and was shown both to correct the enzymic defect and to initiate degradation of [35S]sulphated dermatan sulphate in MPS VI fibroblasts. The stabilities of the recombinant enzyme and enzyme from human fibroblasts appeared to be similar after uptake. However, endocytosed enzyme has a significantly shorter half-life than endogenous human enzyme. The purified precursor 4-sulphatase had a similar pH optimum and catalytic parameters to the mature form of 4-sulphatase isolated from human liver. (+info)
Multiple sulfatase deficiency: catalytically inactive sulfatases are expressed from retrovirally introduced sulfatase cDNAs.
Multiple sulfatase deficiency (MSD) is an inherited lysosomal storage disease characterized by the deficiency of at least seven sulfatases. The basic defect in MSD is thought to be in a post-translational modification common to all sulfatases. In accordance with this concept, RNAs of normal size and amount were detected in MSD fibroblasts for three sulfatases tested. cDNAs encoding arylsulfatase A, arylsulfatase B, or steroid sulfatase were introduced into MSD fibroblasts and fibroblasts with a single sulfatase deficiency by retroviral gene transfer. Infected fibroblasts overexpressed the respective sulfatase polypeptides. While in single-sulfatase-deficiency fibroblasts a concomitant increase of sulfatase activities was observed, MSD fibroblasts expressed sulfatase polypeptides with a severely diminished catalytic activity. From these results we conclude that the mutation in MSD severely decreases the capacity of a co- or post-translational process that renders sulfatases enzymatically active or prevents their premature inactivation. (+info)
Localization of arylsulphatase A and B activities in rat kidney.
Very high arylsulphatase activity has been detected in rat kidney. It is the highest in renal cortex (19 U/g tissue), 3-30 times higher than in other rat organs. Histochemically, arylsulphatase B (N-acetylgalactosamine-4-sulphate sulphatase) activity is localized in large lysosomes of proximal convoluted tubules, where it accounts for over 90% of total arylsulphatase activity. This suggests that the enzyme plays an important role in the degradation of endocytosed sulphated oligosaccharides. (+info)
Mucopolysaccharidosis VI (Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome). An intermediate clinical phenotype caused by substitution of valine for glycine at position 137 of arylsulfatase B.
The Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis type VI) is a lysosomal storage disease with autosomal recessive inheritance caused by deficiency of the enzyme arylsulfatase B. Severe, intermediate, and mild forms of the disease have been described. The molecular correlate of the clinical heterogeneity is not known at present. To identify the molecular defect in a patient with the intermediate form of the disease, arylsulfatase B mRNA from his fibroblasts was reverse-transcribed, amplified by the polymerase chain reaction, and subcloned. Three point mutations were detected by DNA sequence analysis, two of which, a silent A to G transition at nucleotide 1191 and a G to A transition at nucleotide 1126 resulting in a methionine for valine 376 substitution, were polymorphisms. A G to T transversion at nucleotide 410 causing a valine for glycine 137 substitution (G137V) was identified as the mutation underlying the Maroteaux-Lamy phenotype of the patient, who was homozygous for the allele. The kinetic parameters of the mutant arylsulfatase B enzyme toward a radiolabeled trisaccharide substrate were normal excluding an alteration of the active site. The G137V mutation did not affect the synthesis but severely reduced the stability of the arylsulfatase B precursor. While the wild type precursor is converted by limited proteolysis in late endosomes or lysosomes to a mature form, the majority of the mutant precursor was degraded presumably in a compartment proximal to the trans Golgi network and only a small amount escaped to the lysosomes accounting for the low residual enzyme activity in fibroblasts of a patient with the juvenile form of the disease. (+info)
Evidence for differential regulation of genes in the chondroitin sulfate utilization pathway of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron.
Expression of the chondroitin sulfate utilization (csu) genes of Bacterioides thetaiotaomicron is regulated by chondroitin sulfate. We have now found, however, that the csu genes are not all regulated in the same way. In particular, the gene encoding beta-glucuronidase (csuE) is expressed under two different conditions that do not lead to expression of other csu genes. (+info)