Dietary control of triglyceride and phospholipid synthesis in rat liver slices.
1. The effect of dietary manipulation on the synthesis of triglycerides and phospholipids was investigated by determining the incorporation of labeled long-chain fatty acid or glycerol into these lipids in liver slices derived from normally fed, fasted, and fat-free refed rats. 2. Triglyceride synthesis was affected markedly by the dietary regime of the animal; the lowest rates were measured with fasted rats, and the highest ones with fat-free refed rats. 3. In contrast to triglyceride synthesis, phospholipid synthesis occured at virtually constant rates regardless of the dietary conditions. 4. Addition of large amounts of fatty acid to the incubation mixture resulted in a marked stimulation of triglyceride synthesis, whereas phospholipid synthesis was affected to a much smaller extent. 5. These results indicate that the synthesis of triglycerides and that of phospholipids are controlled independently, and that the availability of fatty acid in the cell contributes to the control of triglyceride synthesis. (+info)
Inhibition of Echovirus-12 multiplication by N-carbobenzoxy-D-glucosamine.
The glucosamine derivative, N-carbobenzoxy-D-glucosamine (NCBZG) inhibits the multiplication of Echovirus-12 and the synthesis of both virus RNA and protein at a stage in the virus growth cycle after attachment and penetration. However, the compound does not inhibit virus multiplication after the appearance of progeny virus nor after virus RNA has accumulated. Incorporation of radioactive glucosamine and choline into infected and uninfected cultures is inhibited by NCBZG as is the virus-induced increase in choline incorporation. The compound also prevents the appearance of radioactive choline in isolated membranous structures. The compound did not alter significantly the cellular RNA or protein synthesis, plating efficiency of the cells, their growth over a period of several days, nor the virus-directed inhibition of cellular RNA and protein. These findings suggest that the compound inhibits virus multiplication by its effect on the initiation of biosynthesis which appears to require membrane synthesis. (+info)
Glycine betaine: reserve form of choline in Penicillium fellutanum in low-sulfate medium.
In spite of choline's importance in fungal metabolism, its sources in cytoplasm have not been fully established. 13C nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of mycelial extracts from day-5 Penicillium fellutanum cultures showed that, as well as choline-O-sulfate, intracellular glycine betaine is another reserve form of choline, depending on the availability of sulfate in the culture medium. These observations are discussed relative to the multiple roles of choline and its precursors in P. fellutanum. (+info)
Central nervous system-mediated hyperglycemic effects of NIK-247, a cholinesterase inhibitor, and MKC-231, a choline uptake enhancer, in rats.
We investigated the effects of intracerebroventricular administration of NIK-247 (9-amino-2,3,5,6,7,8-hexahydro-1H-cyclo-penta(b)-quinoline monohydrate hydrochloride; a cholinesterase inhibitor) or MKC-231 (2-(2-oxypyrrolidin-1-yl)-N-(2,3-dimethyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofur o[2,3-b]quinolin-4-yl) acetoamide; a choline uptake enhancer) on plasma glucose level in comparison with that of neostigmine administration in rats. The extents of NIK-247- and MKC-231-induced hyperglycemia were considerably less than that by neostigmine, suggesting that the potencies of the drugs to produce the peripheral hyperglycemia may be pharmacologically negligible. (+info)
Folate nutriture alters choline status of women and men fed low choline diets.
Choline and folate share methylation pathways and, in studies of rats, were shown to be metabolically inter-related. To determine whether choline status is related to folate intake in humans, we measured the effect of controlled folate depletion and repletion on the plasma choline and phosphatidylcholine concentrations of 11 healthy men (33-46 y) and 10 healthy women (49-63 y) fed low-choline diets in two separate metabolic unit studies. Total folate intake was varied by supplementing low folate (25 and 56 microg/d for men and women, respectively) and low choline (238 and 147 mg/d for men and women, respectively) diets with pteroylglutamic acid for 2-6 wk following folate-depletion periods of 4-5 wk. The low folate/choline intakes resulted in subclinical folate deficiencies; mean plasma choline decreases of 28 and 25% in the men and women, respectively; and a plasma phosphatidylcholine decrease of 26% in the men (P < 0. 05). No functional choline deficiency occurred, as measured by serum transaminase and lipid concentrations. The decreases in choline status measures returned to baseline or higher upon moderate folate repletion and were more responsive to folate repletion than plasma folate and homocysteine. Feeding methionine supplements to the men did not prevent plasma choline depletion, indicating that folate is a more limiting nutrient for these methylation pathways. The results indicate that 1) choline is utilized as a methyl donor when folate intake is low, 2) the de novo synthesis of phosphatidylcholine is insufficient to maintain choline status when intakes of folate and choline are low, and 3) dietary choline is required by adults in an amount > 250 mg/d to maintain plasma choline and phosphatidylcholine when folate intake is low. (+info)
Choline and selective antagonists identify two subtypes of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors that modulate GABA release from CA1 interneurons in rat hippocampal slices.
Neuronal nicotinic receptors (nAChR) are known to control transmitter release in the CNS. Thus, this study was aimed at exploring the diversity and localization of nAChRs present in CA1 interneurons in rat hippocampal slices. The use of a U-tube as the agonist delivery system was critical for the reliable detection of nicotinic responses induced by brief exposure of the neurons to ACh or to the alpha7 nAChR-selective agonist choline. The present study demonstrated that CA1 interneurons, in addition to expressing functional alpha7 nAChRs, also express functional alpha4beta2-like nAChRs and that activation of both receptors facilitates an action potential-dependent release of GABA. Depending on the experimental condition, one of the following nicotinic responses was recorded from the interneurons by means of the patch-clamp technique: a nicotinic whole-cell current, depolarization accompanied by action potentials, or GABA-mediated postsynaptic currents (PSCs). Responses mediated by alpha7 nAChRs were short-lasting, whereas those mediated by alpha4beta2 nAChRs were long-lasting. Thus, phasic or tonic inhibition of CA1 interneurons may be achieved by selective activation of alpha7 or alpha4beta2 nAChRs, respectively. It can also be suggested that synaptic levels of choline generated by hydrolysis of ACh in vivo may be sufficient to control the activity of the alpha7 nAChRs. The finding that methyllycaconitine and dihydro-beta-erythroidine (antagonists of alpha7 and alpha4beta2 nAChRs, respectively) increased the frequency and amplitude of GABAergic PSCs suggests that there is an intrinsic cholinergic activity that sustains a basal level of nAChR activity in these interneurons. (+info)
Absolute quantification of brain metabolites by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in normal-appearing white matter of multiple sclerosis patients.
The aim of this research was to obtain an absolute quantification of the N-acetyl-aspartate, choline, creatine and phosphocreatine levels in normal-appearing white matter by means of 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy in a group of multiple sclerosis patients (27 with the relapsing-remitting form and 13 with the secondary progressive form). These values were compared with those of a group of 12 age-matched healthy control subjects. A significant decrease in the N-acetyl-aspartate concentration was found in normal-appearing white matter of frontal and parietal brain areas in multiple sclerosis patients compared with the same areas in control subjects. This reduction was more evident in progressive patients. The decrease in the N-acetyl-aspartate concentration in normal-appearing white matter significantly correlated with the Expanded Disability Status and the lesional load. No significant change was found in the concentration of creatine or choline. This finding concurs with previous evidence of heterogeneity in the multiple sclerosis pathological process which is not confined to the lesions and involves not only myelin, but also axons, even in white matter which appears normal on MRI. (+info)
The choline-converting pathway in Staphylococcus xylosus C2A: genetic and physiological characterization.
A Staphylococcus xylosus C2A gene cluster, which encodes enzymes in the pathway for choline uptake and dehydrogenation (cud), to form the osmoprotectant glycine betaine, was identified. The cud locus comprises four genes, three of which encode proteins with significant similarities to those known to be involved in choline transport and conversion in other organisms. The physiological role of the gene products was confirmed by analysis of cud deletion mutants. The fourth gene possibly codes for a regulator protein. Part of the gene cluster was shown to be transcriptionally regulated by choline and elevated NaCl concentrations as inducers. (+info)