(1/4426) Serum triglyceride: a possible risk factor for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm.

BACKGROUND: We aimed to determine the relationship between ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and serum concentrations of lipids and apolipoproteins. METHODS: A cohort of 21 520 men, aged 35-64 years, was recruited from men attending the British United Provident Association (BUPA) clinic in London for a routine medical examination in 1975-1982. Smoking habits, weight, height and blood pressure were recorded at entry. Lipids and apolipoproteins were measured in stored serum samples from the 30 men who subsequently died of ruptured AAA and 150 matched controls. RESULTS: Triglyceride was strongly related to risk of ruptured AAA. In univariate analyses the risk in men on the 90th centile of the distribution relative to the risk in men on the 10th (RO10-90) was 12 (95% confidence interval [CI] : 3.8-37) for triglyceride, 5.5 (95% CI: 1.8-17) for apolipoprotein B (apoB) (the protein component of low density lipoprotein [LDL]), 0.15 (95% CI : 0.04-0.56) for apo A1 (the protein component of high density lipoprotein [HDL]), 3.7 (95% CI: 1.4-9.4) for body mass index and 3.0 (95% CI: 1.1-8.5) for systolic blood pressure. Lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)) was not a significant risk factor (RO10-90 = 1.6, 95% CI: 0.6-3.0). In multivariate analysis triglyceride retained its strong association. CONCLUSION: Triglyceride appears to be a strong risk factor for ruptured AAA, although further studies are required to clarify this. If this and other associations are cause and effect, then changing the distribution of risk factors in the population (by many people stopping smoking and adopting a lower saturated fat diet and by lowering blood pressure) could achieve an important reduction in mortality from ruptured AAA.  (+info)

(2/4426) The impact of an amino acid-based peritoneal dialysis fluid on plasma total homocysteine levels, lipid profile and body fat mass.

BACKGROUND: The caloric load from glucose-based peritoneal dialysis (PD) fluids contributes to hypertriglyceridaemia, adiposity and, as result of anorexia, protein malnutrition in PD patients. It has been suggested that replacement of a glucose-based by an amino acids-based PD fluid (AA-PDF) for one exchange per day might improve the nutritional status and lipid profile. Due to the uptake of methionine from the dialysate, however, exposure to AA-PDF might aggravate hyperhomocysteinaemia, a frequently occurring risk factor for atherosclerosis in uraemic patients. METHODS: We studied the impact of a once daily exchange with 1.1% AA-PDF instead of glucose-based PD fluid for 2 months on plasma methionine and total homocysteine (tHcy) levels, lipid profile, butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and body fat mass of seven stable PD patients. Results are expressed as mean+/-SEM. RESULTS: Methionine levels did not increase significantly during therapy, but tHcy levels increased substantially from 60+/-12 to 84+/-19 micromol/l after 1 month (P=0.039), and to 85+/-22 micromol/l after 2 months of AA-PDF treatment. Serum triglyceride concentration decreased from 3.0+/-0.4 mmol/l at entry to 2.6+/-0.5 mmol/l (at 1 month, P=0.041 vs baseline). Serum BChE also decreased from 6.9+/-0.4 U/ml at entry to 6.3+/-0.4 U/ml after 2 months (P=0.014). Total cholesterol concentration and cholesterol fractions did not change. The reduced exposure to glucose-based PD fluid for 2 months resulted in a 0.5 kg reduction in fat mass which was due mainly to a reduction in fat mass of the trunk region (0.3 kg, P=0.031). CONCLUSIONS: It is concluded that methionine-containing AA-PDF induces an increase in the plasma tHcy level. This might, potentially, offset the beneficial effects of an improved serum lipid profile and reduced fat mass on the risk of cardiovascular disease in PD patients. Lowering the methionine content of the fluid, therefore, may be required to overcome this adverse effect.  (+info)

(3/4426) Socioeconomic status and determinants of hemostatic function in healthy women.

Hemostatic factors are reported to be associated with coronary heart disease (CHD). Socioeconomic status (SES) is 1 of the determinants of the hemostatic profile, but the factors underlying this association are not well known. Our aim was to examine determinants of the socioeconomic differences in hemostatic profile. Between 1991 and 1994, we studied 300 healthy women, aged 30 to 65 years, who were representative of women living in the greater Stockholm area. Fibrinogen, factor VII mass concentration (FVII:Ag), activated factor VII (FVIIa), von Willebrand factor (vWF), and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) were measured. Educational attainment was used as a measure of SES. Low educational level and an unfavorable hemostatic profile were both associated with older age, unhealthful life style, psychosocial stress, atherogenic biochemical factors, and hypertension. Levels of hemostatic factors increased with lower educational attainment. Independently of age, the differences between the lowest (mandatory) and highest (college/university) education in FVII:Ag levels were 41 microg/L (95% confidence interval [CI], 15 to 66 microg/L, P=0.001), 0.26 g/L (95% CI, 0.10 to 0.42 g/L, P=0.001) in fibrinogen levels, and 0.11 U/mL (95% CI, 0.09 to 0.12 U/mL, P=0.03) in levels of vWF. The corresponding differences in FVIIa and PAI-1 were not statistically significant. With further adjustment for menopausal status, family history of CHD, marital status, psychosocial stress, lifestyle patterns, biochemical factors, and hypertension, statistically significant differences between mandatory and college/university education were observed in FVII:Ag (difference=34 microg/L; 95% CI, 2 to 65 microg/L, P=0.05) but not in fibrinogen (difference=0.03 g/L; 95% CI, -0.13 to 0.19 g/L, P=0.92) or in vWF (difference=0.06 U/mL; 95% CI, -0.10 to 0.22 U/mL, P=0.45). An educational gradient was most consistent and statistically significant for FVII:Ag, fibrinogen, and vWF. Age, psychosocial stress, unhealthful life style, atherogenic biochemical factors, and hypertension mediated the association of low educational level with elevated levels of fibrinogen and vWF. Psychosocial stress and unhealthful life style were the most important contributing factors. There was an independent association between education and FVII:Ag, which could not be explained by any of these factors.  (+info)

(4/4426) ApoA1 reduces free cholesterol accumulation in atherosclerotic lesions of ApoE-deficient mice transplanted with ApoE-expressing macrophages.

Along with apolipoprotein (apo) E, which promotes cholesterol efflux from foam cells, apoA1-containing high density lipoprotein (HDL) is thought to facilitate the transport of cholesterol from lesions. This role for apoA1 was tested in vivo by lethally irradiating apoE-deficient and apoE- plus apoA1-deficient mice and reconstituting them with bone marrow cells isolated from wild-type (WT) mice. ApoE, but not apoA1, was synthesized by the transplanted bone marrow-derived cells. Therefore, this transplantation procedure generated apoE-deficient animals with atherosclerotic lesions that contained both apoE and apoA1 (E/A1 mice) and apoE-deficient animals with lesions that contained apoE but no apoA1 (E/A1o mice). As shown previously, the transplanted WT macrophage-derived apoE dramatically lowered the plasma hypercholesterolemia in both groups. On feeding with an atherogenic diet after transplantation, plasma cholesterol levels were raised in both groups of mice, but the levels in the E/A1 mice at 20 weeks were 2- to 3-fold higher than in E/A1o mice. Immunohistochemical staining verified that apoE was abundant in lesions of both groups, whereas apoA1 was detected in the lesions of E/A1 mice only. Despite a 2- to 3-fold lower total plasma cholesterol in the E/A1o mice, the free cholesterol recovered from isolated aortas was approximately 60% higher and the mean lesion area in serial sections of the aortic valves 45% larger. Therefore, apoA1 reduces free cholesterol accumulation in vivo in atherosclerotic lesions.  (+info)

(5/4426) Identification of megalin/gp330 as a receptor for lipoprotein(a) in vitro.

Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is an atherogenic lipoprotein of unknown physiological function. The mechanism of Lp(a) atherogenicity as well as its catabolic pathways are only incompletely understood at present. In this report, we show that the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) gene family member megalin/glycoprotein (gp) 330 is capable of binding and mediating the cellular uptake and degradation of Lp(a) in vitro. A mouse embryonic yolk sac cell line with native expression of megalin/gp330 but genetically deficient in LDLR-related protein (LRP) and a control cell line carrying a double knockout for both LRP and megalin/gp330 were compared with regard to their ability to bind, internalize, and degrade dioctadecyltetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI)-fluorescence-labeled Lp(a) as well as equimolar amounts of 125I-labeled Lp(a) and LDL. Uptake and degradation of radiolabeled Lp(a) by the megalin/gp330-expressing cells were, on average, 2-fold higher than that of control cells. This difference could be completely abolished by addition of the receptor-associated protein, an inhibitor of ligand binding to megalin/gp330. Mutual suppression of the uptake of 125I-Lp(a) and of 125I-LDL by both unlabeled Lp(a) and LDL suggested that Lp(a) uptake is mediated at least partially by apolipoprotein B100. Binding and uptake of DiI-Lp(a) resulted in strong signals on megalin/gp330-expressing cells versus background only on control cells. In addition, we show that purified megalin/gp330, immobilized on a sensor chip, directly binds Lp(a) in a Ca2+-dependent manner with an affinity similar to that for LDL. We conclude that megalin/gp330 binds Lp(a) in vitro and is capable of mediating its cellular uptake and degradation.  (+info)

(6/4426) Effects of alcohol and cholesterol feeding on lipoprotein metabolism and cholesterol absorption in rabbits.

Alcohol fed to rabbits in a liquid formula at 30% of calories increased plasma cholesterol by 36% in the absence of dietary cholesterol and by 40% in the presence of a 0.5% cholesterol diet. The increase was caused almost entirely by VLDL, IDL, and LDL. Cholesterol feeding decreased the fractional catabolic rate for VLDL and LDL apoprotein by 80% and 57%, respectively, and increased the production rate of VLDL and LDL apoprotein by 75% and 15%, respectively. Alcohol feeding had no effect on VLDL apoprotein production but increased LDL production rate by 55%. The efficiency of intestinal cholesterol absorption was increased by alcohol. In the presence of dietary cholesterol, percent cholesterol absorption rose from 34.4+/-2.6% to 44.9+/-2.5% and in the absence of dietary cholesterol, from 84.3+/-1.4% to 88.9+/-1.0%. Increased cholesterol absorption and increased LDL production rate may be important mechanisms for exacerbation by alcohol of hypercholesterolemia in the cholesterol-fed rabbit model.  (+info)

(7/4426) Low-density lipoprotein particle size is inversely related to plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels. The Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study.

High levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and preponderance of small dense low-density lipoproteins (LDL) have both been associated with atherosclerotic disease and with the insulin resistance syndrome (IRS). In vitro studies have shown a stimulatory effect of various lipoproteins on PAI-1 release from different cells, including endothelial cells and adipocytes. The authors sought to investigate the relation of PAI-1 to LDL particle size in a large tri-ethnic population (n=1549) across different states of glucose tolerance. LDL size was determined by gradient gel electrophoresis, and PAI-1 was measured by a 2-site immunoassay, sensitive to free PAI-1. PAI-1 was inversely related to LDL size in the overall population (r=-0.21, P<0.0001), independent of gender and ethnicity. However, the authors found a significant interaction with glucose tolerance status (P=0.035). In univariate analysis, the association between PAI-1 and LDL size was most pronounced in subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT, r=-0.22, P<0.0001) and weaker in impaired glucose tolerance (IGT, r=-0.12, P=0.03) and type-2 diabetes (r=-0.10, P=0.02). After adjustment for demographic variables and metabolic variables known to influence PAI-1 levels (triglyceride and insulin sensitivity), a significant inverse relation of LDL size to PAI-1 levels was only present in NGT (P=0. 023). In subjects with IGT or overt diabetes, who usually have elevated PAI-1 levels, additional factors other than LDL size seem to contribute more importantly to PAI-1 levels. The demonstrated inverse relation of LDL size and PAI-1 levels provides one possible explanation for the atherogeneity of small dense LDL particles.  (+info)

(8/4426) Induction of monocyte binding to endothelial cells by MM-LDL: role of lipoxygenase metabolites.

Treatment of human aortic endothelial cells (EC) with minimally oxidized LDL (or minimally modified LDL, MM-LDL) produces a specific pattern of endothelial cell activation distinct from that produced by LPS, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interleukin-1, but similar to other agents that elevate cAMP. The current studies focus on the signal transduction pathways by which MM-LDL activates EC to bind monocytes. We now demonstrate that, in addition to an elevation of cAMP, lipoxygenase products are necessary for the MM-LDL response. Treatment of EC with inhibitors of the lipoxygenase pathway, 5,8,11, 14-eicosatetraynoic acid (ETYA) or cinnamyl-3, 4-dihydroxy-alpha-cyanocinnamate (CDC), blocked monocyte binding in MM-LDL-treated EC (MM-LDL=118+/-13%; MM-LDL+ETYA=33+/-4%; MM-LDL+CDC=23+/-4% increase in monocyte binding) without reducing cAMP levels. To further investigate the role of the lipoxygenase pathway, cellular phospholipids were labeled with arachidonic acid. Treatment of cells for 4 hours with 50 to 100 microg/mL MM-LDL, but not native LDL, caused a 60% increase in arachidonate release into the medium and increased the intracellular formation of 12(S)-HETE (approximately 100% increase). There was little 15(S)-HETE present, and no increase in its levels was observed. We demonstrated that 12(S)-HETE reversed the inhibitory effect of CDC. We also observed a 70% increase in the formation of 11,12-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (11, 12-EET) in cells treated with MM-LDL. To determine the mechanism of arachidonate release induced by MM-LDL, we examined the effects of MM-LDL on intracellular calcium levels. Treatment of EC with both native LDL and MM-LDL caused a rapid release of intracellular calcium from internal stores. However, several pieces of evidence suggest that calcium release alone does not explain the increased arachidonate release in MM-LDL-treated cells. The present studies suggest that products of 12-lipoxygenase play an important role in MM-LDL action on the induction of monocyte binding to EC.  (+info)