Concentrations of cholestenoic acids in plasma from patients with liver disease.
The concentrations of 3 beta-hydroxy-5-cholestenoic acid, 3 beta,7 alpha-dihydroxy-5-cholestenoic acid, and 7 alpha-hydroxy-3-oxo-4-cholestenoic acid were determined in plasma from patients with different liver diseases and compared with those of unconjugated and conjugated C24 bile acids. The levels of the cholestenoic acids were similar in patients with extrahepatic cholestasis and in controls (median concentration 153 and 162 ng/ml, respectively), whereas significantly elevated levels were found in plasma from patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (median concentration 298 ng/ml) and alcoholic liver cirrhosis (median concentration 262 ng/ml). As expected, conjugated C24 bile acids were elevated in most patients whereas the corresponding unconjugated compounds were low in cholestasis and elevated in alcoholic liver cirrhosis. The levels of the individual C27 acids were usually positively correlated to each other and also to the levels of conjugated C24 bile acids in plasma from patients with liver cirrhosis. In contrast, there was no correlation between the levels of C27 acids and conjugated bile acids in patients with extrahepatic cholestasis. The levels of unconjugated C24 bile acids were not correlated to C27 acids or conjugated bile acids in any of the groups. The results indicate that there is a close metabolic relationship between the individual C27 acids, that they do not participate in an enterohepatic circulation, and that the liver is important for their elimination/metabolism. (+info)
Concentrations of cholestenoic acids in plasma from patients with reduced intestinal reabsorption of bile acids.
The concentrations of 3 beta-hydroxy-5-cholestenoic acid, 3 beta,7 alpha-dihydroxy-5-cholestenoic acid, and 7 alpha-hydroxy-3-oxo-4-cholestenoic acid were determined in plasma from patients treated with cholestyramine or subjected to resection of the ileum or colon. The values were compared with those for conjugated and unconjugated C24 bile acids. Patients with an intact ileum but without colon had normal levels of cholestenoic acids. Patients treated with cholestyramine or with ileal resection had elevated levels of 7 alpha-hydroxy-3-oxo-4-cholestenoic acid (median values 189 and 233 ng/ml, respectively, compared to 85 ng/ml in controls). The levels of the other two C27 acids were normal in cholestyramine-treated and low in ileoresected patients and were positively correlated to each other but not to the 3-oxo-delta 4 acid. There were no consistent correlations between the levels of C27 acids and those of conjugated or unconjugated C24 bile acids. The results indicate an increased formation of 7 alpha-hydroxy-3-oxo-4-cholestenoic acid in subjects having a stimulated activity of cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase. (+info)
Inhibitors of sterol synthesis. Morphological studies in rats after dietary administration of 5 alpha-cholest-8(14)-en-3 beta-ol-15-one, a potent hypocholesterolemic compound.
The morphological effects of short-term (9 days) dietary administration (0.1% in a laboratory chow diet) of 5 alpha-cholest-8(14)-en-3 beta-ol-15-one, a novel regulator of cholesterol metabolism with significant hypocholesterolemic activity, has been studied in young male rats. Control animals included rats fed the basal diet ad libitum and a series of rats pair-fed to the individual experimental animals. At the time of necropsy, the morphological changes in rats which have been observed in rats following treatment with other absorbable hypolipidemic agents (myeloid bodies with triparanol, increased peroxisomes with clofibrate, and proliferation of smooth endoplasmic reticulum with compactin and mevinolin) were not apparent on ultrastructural examination of livers of rats treated with the 15-ketosterol. Two changes were observed in the rats fed the 15-ketosterol: a decrease in adipose tissue and enlargement of the small intestine. Diminished fat was also noted in the pair-fed controls and was presumably due to decreased food consumption. The intestines of rats fed the 15-ketosterol were morphometrically most enlarged in the jejunal region. Morphologically, this increase was distinguished by increased depth of crypts of Lieberkuhn and pseudostratification of epithelium at the base of the villi. These changes were qualitatively and quantitatively similar to the adaptive changes reported in the rat after resection of small bowel or following intestinal bypass (segment of bowel remaining in continuity). The morphological changes induced in the rat by administration of the 15-ketosterol were not observed in 4 baboons which received the compound orally at doses of 50, 75, or 100 mg per kilogram of body weight for up to 3 months. (+info)
Inhibitors of sterol synthesis. Characterization of side chain oxygenated derivatives formed upon incubation of 3 beta-hydroxy-5 alpha-cholest-8(14)-en-15-one with rat liver mitochondria.
3 beta-Hydroxy-5 alpha-cholest-8(14)-en-15-one, a potent inhibitor of sterol biosynthesis, was incubated with rat liver mitochondrial preparations in the presence of NADPH. The following four major products were isolated and characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry: (25R)- and (25S)-3 beta,26-dihydroxy-5 alpha-cholest-8(14)-en-15-one (4:1 ratio), 3 beta-hydroxy-15-oxo-5 alpha-cholest-8(14)-en-26-oic acid, and 3 beta,25-dihydroxy-5 alpha-cholest-8(14)-en-15-one. In addition, 3 alpha,26-dihydroxy-5 alpha-cholest-8(14)-en-15-one and 3 beta,24-dihydroxy-5 alpha-cholest-8(14)-en-15-one were identified as minor products by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. (+info)
Cholesterol-rich intracellular membranes: a precursor to the plasma membrane.
The disposition of newly synthesized sterols in cultured human fibroblasts has been examined in this study. We began by demonstrating that cholesterol mass and exogenously added [3H]cholesterol both are markers for the plasma membrane, perhaps better than 5'-nucleotidase. Cells were incubated with radioactive acetate to label their endogenous sterols biosynthetically, treated with cholesterol oxidase to convert plasma membrane cholesterol to cholestenone, and then homogenized and spun to equilibrium on sucrose gradients. The density gradient profiles of the various organelles were monitored using these markers: plasma membrane, radioactive cholestenone; smooth endoplasmic reticulum, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMG-CoA reductase); and Golgi apparatus, galactosyltransferase. The buoyant density profiles of radioactive intracellular cholesterol and lanosterol both had a peak at 1.12 g/cm3, similar to 5'-nucleotidase and galactosyltransferase but not to HMG-CoA reductase. This result suggests that cholesterol biosynthesis is not taken to completion in the endoplasmic reticulum. Digitonin treatment shifted the profiles of both plasma membrane and intracellular cholesterol to higher densities. Pretreatment of intact cells with cholesterol oxidase abolished the digitonin shift of plasma membranes but not the intracellular cholesterol, indicating that these two membrane pools are not entirely physically associated. Because intracellular cholesterol was shifted more than any of the organelle markers, it must reside in a separate membrane. Since digitonin selectively shifts the density of membranes rich in cholesterol, we infer that newly synthesized cholesterol accumulates in such membranes prior to its delivery to the plasma membrane. Taken together, these results suggest that cholesterol may be concentrated for delivery to the plasma membrane by being synthesized from a sterol precursor such as lanosterol in a discrete but undefined intracellular membrane. (+info)