Biosynthesis of bile acids in man. Hydroxylation of the C27-steroid side chain. (9/116)

The first step in the degradation of the steroid side chain during biosynthesis of bile acids from cholesterol in man was studied in microsomal and mitochondrial fraction of homogenate of livers from 14 patients. The microsomal fraction was found to catalyze an efficient 25-hydroxylation of 5,8-cholestane-3a,7a,12atriol. A small extent of 23-, 24-, and 26-hydroxylation of the same substrate was observed. 53-Cholestane-3a,7adiol was hydroxylated in the 25-position only to a very small extent. The mitochondrial fraction was found to catalyze 26-hydroxylation of cholesterol, 5-cholestene-3P,7a-diol, 5P-cholestane-3a,7a-diol, 7a-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one, and 5,0-cholestane-3a,7a,12a-triol. Addition of Mg++ stimulated the 26-hydroxylation of cholesterol but had no effect or an inhibitory effect on 26-hydroxylation of the other substrates, indicating a heterogeneity of the mitochondrial 26-hydroxylating system. The level of 26-hydroxylase activity towards different substrates varied considerably with different mitochondrial preparations. The roles of the microsomal and mitochondrial 26- hydroxylations as well as the microsomal 25-hydroxylation in biosynthesis of bile acids in man are discussed. The results indicate that microsomal 26-hydroxylation is less important than mitochondrial 26-hydroxylation under normal conditions. The possibility that microsomal 25-hydroxylation is important cannot be ruled out.  (+info)

The effects of meiosis activating sterol on in-vitro maturation and fertilization of human oocytes from stimulated and unstimulated ovaries. (10/116)

The object of this study was to assess functional maturation in vitro by obtaining data on the fertilization and embryonic competence of human oocytes with or without exposure to meiosis activating sterol (MAS) during maturation in vitro. Immature oocytes were either collected from unstimulated patients with polycystic ovaries (PCO) during gynaecological surgery, or were donated by patients undergoing a cycle of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatment including ovarian stimulation with gonadotrophins. PCO oocytes had variable cumulus cover, which was retained during culture while those from ICSI patients were cultured without cumulus. The study included 119 oocytes from PCO patients and 72 from ICSI patients. The oocytes were allowed to mature in vitro for up to 46 h in the presence or absence of MAS. Mature oocytes were inseminated by ICSI with fertile donor spermatozoa and embryo development was monitored in vitro. MAS (30 microg/ml) significantly increased the survival of oocytes from PCO patients (P < 0.01) but did not significantly affect the proportion completing maturation in vitro. For the ICSI patients, >90% of oocytes survived in all culture groups, regardless of MAS addition, however MAS (10 or 30 microg/ml) significantly increased the proportion of oocytes maturing in vitro (P < 0.05). The apparent tendency towards improved subsequent development in vitro will require larger numbers of oocytes for evaluation. Oocytes from ICSI patients matured more rapidly in vitro than those from PCO patients. Our results show positive effects of MAS on human oocytes, confirming previous data in mice. This work may have implications for the future clinical application of IVM.  (+info)

Microsomal 12alpha-hydroxylation of 7alpha-[12alpha, 12beta-2H2]hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one. (11/116)

The synthesis of 7alpha-[12alpha, 12beta-2 H2]hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one is described. It was shown with different techniques that this compound was 12alpha-hydroxylated by the microsomal fraction of a rat liver homogenate without marked isotope effect, indicating that cleavage of the C--H bond is not the rate-limiting step in this hydroxylation. The rate of 12alpha-hydroxylation was decreased by about 20% when performed in a medium containing deuterated water. The findings were discussed with reference to the specific properties of the 12alpha-hydroxylating system and to the results of previous studies on rate-limiting step in microsomal hydroxylation of steroids.  (+info)

From brain to bile. Evidence that conjugation and omega-hydroxylation are important for elimination of 24S-hydroxycholesterol (cerebrosterol) in humans. (12/116)

The brain is the almost exclusive site of formation of 24S-hydroxycholesterol in man, and there is a continuous flux of this oxysterol across the blood-brain barrier into the circulation. The hepatic metabolism of 24S-hydroxycholesterol was studied here by three different approaches: incubation of tritium-labeled 24S-hydroxycholesterol with human primary hepatocytes, administration of tritium-labeled 24S-hydroxycholesterol to a human volunteer, and quantitation of free and conjugated 24S-hydroxycholesterol and its neutral metabolites in ileocecal fluid from patients with ileal fistulae. 24S-Hydroxycholesterol as well as 24R-hydroxycholesterol were converted into bile acids by human hepatocytes at a rate of about 40% of that of the normal intermediate in bile acid synthesis, 7 alpha-hydroxycholesterol. There was also a conversion of 24S-hydroxycholesterol into conjugate(s) of 5-cholestene-3 beta,24S,27-triol at a rate similar to the that of conversion into bile acids. When administered to a human volunteer, labeled 24S-hydroxycholesterol was converted into bile acids at about half the rate of simultaneously administered labeled 7 alpha-hydroxycholesterol. Free, sulfated, and glucuronidated 24S-hydroxycholesterol and 5-cholestene-3 beta,24,27-triol were identified in ileocecal fluid. The excretion of these steroids was about 3.5 mg/24 h, amounting to more than 50% of the total estimated flux of 24S-hydroxycholesterol from the brain. It is concluded that 24S-hydroxycholesterol is a less efficient precursor to bile acids and that about half of it is conjugated and eliminated in bile as such or as a conjugate of a 27-hydroxylated metabolite. The less efficient metabolism of 24S-hydroxycholesterol may explain the surprisingly high levels of this oxysterol in the circulation and is of interest in relation to the suggested role of 24S-hydroxycholesterol as a regulator of cholesterol homeostasis.  (+info)

Sterol biosynthesis in the echinoderm Asterias rubens. (13/116)

1. [2(-14)C]Mevalonic acid injected into the echinoderm Asterias rubens (Class Asteroidea) was effectively incorporated into the non-saponifiable lipid. 2. The most extensively labelled compounds were squalene and the 4,4-dimethyl sterols with much lower incorporations into the 4alpha-monomethyl and 4-demethyl sterol fractions. 3. Labelled compounds identified were squalene, lanosterol, 4,4-dimethyl-5alpha-cholesta-8,24-dien-3beta-ol and 4alpha-methyl-5alpha-cholest-7-en-3beta-ol; these are all intermediates in sterol biosynthesis. 4. The major sterol in A. rubens, 5alpha-cholest-7-en-3beta-ol, was also labelled showing that this echinoderm is capable of sterol biosynthesis de novo. 5. No evidence was obtained for the incorporation of [2(-14)C]mevalonic acid into the C28 and C29 components of the 4-demethyl sterols or 9beta,19-cyclopropane sterols found in A. rubens and it is assumed that these sterols are of dietary origin. 6. Another starfish Henricia sanguinolenta also incorporated [2(-14)C]mevalonic acid into squalene and lanosterol. 7. Various isolated tissues of A. rubens were all capable of incorporation of [2(-14)C]mevalonic acid into the nonsaponifiable lipid. With the body-wall and stomach tissues radioactivity accumulated in squalene and the 4,4-dimethyl sterols, but with the gonads and pyloric caecae there was a more efficient incorporation of radioactivity into the 4-demethyl sterols, principally 5alpha-cholest-7-en-3beta-ol.  (+info)

The conversion of cholest-5-en-3beta-ol into cholest-7-en-3beta-ol by the echinoderms Asterias rubens and Solaster papposus. (14/116)

1. The echinoderms Asterias rubens and Solaster papposus (Class Asteroidea) metabolize injected [4(-14)C]cholest-5-en-3beta-ol to produce labelled 5alpha-cholestan-3beta-ol and 5alpha-cholest-7-en-3beta-ol. 2. Conversion of 5alpha-[4(-14)C]cholestan-3beta-ol into 5alpha-cholest-7-en-3beta-ol was demonstrated in A. Rubens. 3. Incubations of A. rubens with [4(-14)C]cholest-4-en-3-one resulted in the production of labelled 5alpha-cholestan-3-one, 5alpha-cholestan-3beta-ol and 5alpha-cholest-7-en-3beta-ol. 4. [4(-14)C]Sitosterol was metabolized by A. rubens to give 5alpha-stigmastan-3beta-ol and 5alpha-stigmast-7-en-3beta-ol. 5. The significance of these results in relation to the presence of alpha7 sterols in starfish is discussed.  (+info)

The role of a 5alpha-hydroxylated intermediate in the formation of the 5, 6-double bond in cholesterol biosynthesis. (15/116)

If the biological conversion of cholest-7-en-3beta-ol (I) into cholesterol (IV) occurred thorugh the intermediacy of cholest-7-ene-3beta,5alpha-diol (II) then the factor(s) adversely affecting the convwesion of the 5alpha-hydroxy sterol (II) into cholesterol must at least equally adversely affect the formation of cholesterol from cholest-7-en-3beta-ol. By using partial denaturation techniquws and dual-labelled precursors it was shown that the enzyme system responsible for the conversion of the 5alpha-hydroxy sterol (II) into cholesterol denatured faster than that for the corresponding conversion from cholest-7-en-3beta-ol (I).  (+info)

Characterization of two steroidal ketones and two isoprenoid alcohols in dairy products. (16/116)

Two steroidal ketones, delta-4-cholesten-3-one and delta-3,-5-cholestadiene-7-one, were isolated and identified for the first time in anhydrous milk fat and in nonfat dry milk. Together with these, two isoprenoid alcohols, phytol and dihydrophytol, were identified in anhydrous milk fat. Their identities were established on the basis of chromatographic and mass spectral data and confirmed by comparison with authentic materials.  (+info)