5 alpha-cholest-8(14)-en-3 beta-ol-15-one, a potent regulator of cholesterol metabolism: occurrence in rat skin.
(73/116)5 alpha-Cholest-8(14)-en-3 beta-ol-15-one is a potent inhibitor of cholesterol biosynthesis which has significant hypocholesterolemic activity upon oral administration to animals. Described herein are the results of experiments that indicate the presence of the 15-ketosterol in rat skin. The 15-ketosterol was, after purification by medium pressure liquid chromatography on Lichroprep RP-8 columns, thin-layer chromatography on silica gel G, and reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography, characterized by gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in the form of its trimethylsilyl ether derivative. The use of an internal standard containing both tritium and deuterium permitted the determination of the levels of the 15-ketosterol by mass fragmentography. The results of five separate analyses of portions of the skin of a male Sprague Dawley rat showed a mean value of 84.5 +/- 4.1 (SEM) ng per g. Analyses of hair samples of ten male Sprague Dawley rats indicated a mean level of 143 +/- 19 (SEM) ng per g of hair. Most (approximately 72%) of the 15-ketosterol in hair was esterified. This report constitutes the first isolation of the 15-ketosterol from animal tissues. (+info)
Inhibitors of sterol synthesis. Metabolism of [2,4-3H]5 alpha-cholest-8(14-)-en-3 beta-ol-15-one after intravenous administration to a nonhuman primate.
(74/116)The metabolism of 5 alpha-cholest-8(14)-en-3 beta-ol-15-one, a potent inhibitor of cholesterol synthesis with marked hypocholesterolemic activity, has been studied after the intravenous administration of a mixture of [2,4-3H]5 alpha-cholest-8(14)-en-3 beta-ol-15-one and [4-14C] cholesterol to a baboon. The levels of 3H in plasma which was associated with the free 15-ketosterol decreased very rapidly (T1/2 approximately 9 min) after injection of the labeled sterol. By 4 h, the level of the [3H]15-ketosterol in plasma was negligible. The rapid decrease in the levels of the free 15-ketosterol was associated with rapid formation of fatty acid esters of the 15-ketosterol. The maximum level of 3H-labeled 15-ketosteryl esters was observed at 20 min after the injection of the 15-ketosterol. Thereafter, the levels of the 15-ketosteryl esters decreased rapidly with an apparent T1/2 of approximately 3.5-4.0 h. The results also indicated rapid formation of 3H-labeled cholesterol and cholesteryl esters. Substantial formation of [3H]cholesterol was observed at 20 min after the injection of the 15-ketosterol and reached a maximum level in plasma at 2 h. The maximum levels of [3H]cholesteryl esters in plasma were observed much later. These and other findings indicated that the observed slow clearance of total 3H from plasma is a consequence of metabolism of the 15-ketosterol to cholesterol and cholesteryl esters, normal constituents of plasma whose turnover in the whole animal is known to be relatively slow. (+info)
Inhibitors of sterol synthesis. Metabolism of 5 alpha-cholest-8(14)-en-3 beta-ol-15-one after intravenous administration to bile duct-cannulated rats.
(75/116)The metabolism of 5 alpha-cholest-8(14)-en-3 beta-ol-15-one has been studied after intravenous administration to bile duct-cannulated rats. Very rapid and substantial conversion of the 15-ketosterol to polar biliary metabolites was observed in both male and female rats. For example, upon intravenous injection of [4-14C]5 alpha-cholest-8(14)-en-3 beta-ol-15-one to male bile duct-cannulated rats, approximately 86% of the administered 14C was recovered in bile in the first 38 h. Of the total amount of 14C recovered in bile in 38 h, approximately 50% was excreted in bile in the first 70 min and approximately 90% was excreted within 8 h after the injection of the 15-ketosterol. A substantial fraction of the polar biliary metabolites was shown to undergo enterohepatic circulation. Of the radioactivity derived from the labeled 15-ketosterol which was not recovered in bile or other excreta at 48 h after the intravenous administration of the 15-ketosterol, most (approximately 79%) was recovered in the form of cholesterol and cholesteryl esters of blood and the various tissues. The very substantial and rapid biliary excretion of polar metabolites of the 15-ketosterol (or of cholesterol derived from the 15-ketosterol), coupled with inhibition of the intestinal absorption of cholesterol by the 15-ketosterol, may contribute to the overall hypocholesterolemic action of the 15-ketosterol which has been observed in rodents and in nonhuman primates by providing a metabolic pathway(s) wherein a substantial fraction of the absorbed 15-ketosterol is rapidly removed from the body by biliary excretion in the form of polar metabolites. (+info)
Inhibitors of sterol synthesis. Reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography for the separation of cholesterol, 5 alpha-cholest-8(14)-en-3 beta-ol-15-one, and their fatty acid esters.
(76/116)A relatively simple and rapid method was required for the separation of 5 alpha-cholest-8(14)-en-3 beta-ol-15-one, a potent inhibitor of sterol synthesis, from its major metabolites. Conditions have been determined which permit the resolution of the 15-ketosterol and cholesterol and fatty acid esters of the two sterols by reverse phase high performance chromatography. This methodology also permits the resolution of the major esters of the 15-ketosterol and of cholesterol. (+info)
Occurrence of 3 beta-hydroxy-5-cholestenoic acid, 3 beta,7 alpha-dihydroxy-5-cholestenoic acid, and 7 alpha-hydroxy-3-oxo-4-cholestenoic acid as normal constituents in human blood.
(77/116)Three unconjugated C27 bile acids were found in plasma from healthy humans. They were isolated by liquid-solid extraction and anion-exchange chromatography and were identified by gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, microchemical reactions, and ultraviolet spectroscopy as 3 beta-hydroxy-5-cholestenoic, 3 beta,7 alpha-dihydroxy-5-cholestenoic, and 7 alpha-hydroxy-3-oxo-4-cholestenoic acids. Their levels often exceeded those of the unconjugated C24 bile acids and the variations between individuals were smaller than for the C24 acids. The concentrations in plasma from 11 healthy subjects were 67.2 +/- 27.9 ng/ml (mean +/- SD) for 3 beta-hydroxy-5-cholestenoic acid, 38.9 +/- 25.6 ng/ml for 3 beta,7 alpha-dihydroxy-5-cholestenoic acid, and 81.7 +/- 27.9 ng/ml for 7 alpha-hydroxy-3-oxo-4-cholestenoic acid. The levels of the individual acids were positively correlated to each other and not to the levels of the C24 acids. The cholestenoic acids were below the detection limit (20-50 ng/ml) in bile and C27 bile acids present in bile were not detected in plasma. (+info)
Inhibitors of sterol synthesis. Spectral characterization of derivatives of 5 alpha-cholest-8(14)-en-3 beta-ol-15-one.
(78/116)Described herein are the chemical syntheses of a number of deuterated derivatives of 5 alpha-cholest-8(14)-en-3 beta-ol-15-one. These include the [2,2,3 alpha,4,4,7,7,9 alpha,16,16-2H10]-, [7 alpha,9 alpha,16,16-2H4]-, [7,7,9 alpha,16,16-2H5]-, and [2,2,3 alpha,4,4-2H5]-analogs of the delta 8(14)-15-ketosterol. Also included are the syntheses of the 3 beta-acetate derivatives of the latter three deuterated analogs and of 5 alpha-cholest-8(14)-en-3 beta-ol-15-one, and 5 alpha-cholest-8(14)-en-3 alpha-ol-15-one. Low resolution mass spectral data on these compounds and on 5 alpha-cholest-8(14)-en-15-one, 5 alpha-cholest-8(14)-en-3 beta-ol-15-one, 5 alpha-cholest-8(14)-en-3 alpha-ol-15-one, 3 beta-benzoyloxy-5 alpha-cholest-8(14)-en-15-one, and the trimethylsilyl ethers of the free sterols have been presented. The results of these studies, supplemented with high resolution mass spectral data on five of these compounds, have been used to evaluate the electron impact mass spectral fragmentation of the delta 8(14)-15-ketosterols and their derivatives. Also presented herein are the results of 1H, 2H, and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance studies of 5 alpha-cholest-8(14)-en-3 beta-ol-15-one and its derivatives. (+info)
Inhibitors of sterol synthesis. Synthesis and spectral characterization of fatty acids esters of 5 alpha-cholest-8(14)-en-3 beta-ol-15-one.
(79/116)Reported herein are the chemical syntheses of 29 fatty acid esters of 5 alpha-cholest-8(14)-en-3 beta-ol-15-one. These compounds were characterized by the results of ultraviolet, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance, and mass spectral studies. (+info)
Isolation, identification, and chemical synthesis of 8 alpha,25-dihydroxy-9,10-seco-4,6,10(19)-cholestatrien-3-one. A new metabolite of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 produced by mouse myeloid leukemia cells (M1).
(80/116)It is known that phagocytic cells such as monocyte-macrophages and myeloid leukemia cells metabolize 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 to 10-oxo-19-nor-25-hydroxyvitamin D3. Now we have found that phagocytic cells metabolize 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 not only to 10-oxo-19-nor-25-hydroxyvitamin D3 but also to a new metabolite eluted just after 24R,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on straight phase high pressure liquid chromatography with a 2-propanol-hexane solvent system. The new metabolite, produced by murine myeloid leukemia cells (M1), was isolated in pure form and identified as 8,25-dihydroxy-9,10-seco-4,6,10(19)-cholestatrien-3-one on the basis of mass, ultraviolet, infrared, and proton magnetic resonance spectra. The 8 alpha-hydroxy epimer of the putative metabolite was chemically synthesized in two steps starting from 25-hydroxyvitamin D3. The spectral data and chromatographic behavior of chemically synthesized 8 alpha,25-dihydroxy-9,10-seco-4,6,10(19)-cholestatrien-3-one coincided exactly with those of the isolated metabolite, indicating that the stereochemistry of the hydroxyl group at the 8-position is alpha. On the basis of the structural characteristics of the two metabolites produced from 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (the present metabolite and 10-oxo-19-nor-25-hydroxyvitamin D3), it is suggested that dioxygenases are involved in the production of these metabolites from 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in phagocytic cells. (+info)