Meiosis-activating sterol promotes the metaphase I to metaphase II transition and preimplantation developmental competence of mouse oocytes maturing in vitro. (25/116)

The objective of this study was to determine the effects of a sterol found in ovarian follicular fluid, known as meiosis-activating sterol (FF-MAS), on the maturation of mouse oocytes in vitro. Possible effects of FF-MAS in promoting the metaphase I (MI) to metaphase II (MII) transition (nuclear maturation) and the competence of oocytes to complete preimplantation embryo development to the blastocyst stage (cytoplasmic maturation) were assessed. Cumulus cell-enclosed oocytes that were compromised in their ability to undergo nuclear maturation and subsequent development because of the age or genotype of the female were isolated at the germinal vesicle stage and matured in vitro using media supplemented with 0 to 20 microM FF-MAS. Oocytes that progressed to MII were inseminated in vitro, and the percentages developing to the 2-cell and blastocyst stages were determined. The sterol was omitted from the media used for oocyte insemination or preimplantation development. FF-MAS promoted a significantly higher percentage of oocytes in all groups to progress to MII in vitro. Moreover, FF-MAS treatment of oocytes maturing in vitro dramatically increased the competence of all but one of the groups of oocytes to complete preimplantation development. Therefore, FF-MAS improved mouse oocyte quality by promoting both nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation in vitro.  (+info)

Chromosomal abnormality rate in human pre-embryos derived from in vitro fertilization cycles cultured in the presence of Follicular-Fluid Meiosis Activating Sterol (FF-MAS). (26/116)

BACKGROUND: The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of Follicular-Fluid Meiosis Activating Sterol (FF-MAS) when added to the culture media on the incidence of chromosomal abnormalities and pre-embryo development in human pre-embryos. METHODS: 243 women undergoing IVF/ICSI treatment donated 353 oocytes in a multicentre, prospective, randomized, double blind, four-arm, controlled trial performed at Danish and Swedish public and private IVF centers. Metaphase II oocytes were randomly assigned to: FF-MAS 5 microM, FF-MAS 20 microM, ethanol 0.2% (vehicle control) or water for injection (inert control). The exposure regimen of FF-MAS to the human oocytes was 4 h prior to fertilization by ICSI and 20 h exposure post ICSI. The primary endpoint was the incidence of numerical chromosomal abnormalities. Secondary endpoints were cleavage rate and pre-embryo quality. RESULT: On the pre-embryo level, no significant differences in chromosomal abnormality rate were observed among the four groups. However, the percentage of uniformly normal pre-embryos was significantly lower in the pooled FF-MAS group (5 microM: 12% and 20 microM: 17%) than in the pooled control group (inert control 32% and vehicle control 42%). A high level of mosaicism (41-60%) was found in all groups. At the blastomere level, the percentage of blastomeres categorized as normal was significantly lower in the FF-MAS 5 microM group (41%) and the FF-MAS 20 microM (29%) group versus the inert (52%) and the vehicle (61%) groups. Significantly reduced cleavage and good quality pre-embryo rates were found in both FF-MAS groups. CONCLUSION: FF-MAS increased the rate of aneuploidy and had detrimental effects on cleavage and pre-embryo development, when exposed both before and after fertilization.  (+info)

Meiosis-activating sterol synthesis in rat preovulatory follicle: is it involved in resumption of meiosis? (27/116)

Meiosis-activating sterol (MAS) was shown to overcome the inhibitory effect of hypoxanthine on spontaneous maturation of mouse oocytes and was suggested to mediate the stimulation of meiosis by gonadotropins. Follicular fluid (FF)-MAS is synthesized by cytochrome P450 lanosterol 14alpha-demethylase (LDM). Follicular LDM was preferentially localized in oocytes by immunohistochemistry. Using [3H]acetate or R-[5-3H]mevalonate as precursors as well as high-performance liquid chromatographic and thin-layer chromatographic separation, we have measured the concentrations of de novo-synthesized lanosterol, FF-MAS, and cholesterol in rat graafian follicles, cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs), and denuded oocytes (DOs) treated with LH, AY-9944 (an inhibitor of Delta14-reductase, which was anticipated to increase FF-MAS levels by inhibiting its metabolism), or both after 8 h of culture. In follicles, both LH and AY-9944 increased the accumulation of FF-MAS as compared to controls. In COCs, AY-9944 caused a marked increase in FF-MAS, but we were unable to detect accumulation of FF-MAS in DOs. Neither the endogenous increases in FF-MAS accumulation nor the addition of FF-MAS to the culture medium could overcome the inhibition on resumption of meiosis by phosphodiesterase inhibitors. Compared to LH-induced resumption of meiosis in follicles, that induced by AY-9944 was much delayed. These results call into question any role of FF-MAS as an obligatory mediator of LH activity on germinal vesicle breakdown. The discrepancy between the positive staining for LDM in oocytes and our inability to detect de novo synthesized FF-MAS in DOs may relate to the sensitivity of the methodology employed and either the number of oocytes used or a deficiency in LDM synthetic activity in such oocytes. Further studies are required to confirm any of these alternatives.  (+info)

Quantitation of lanosterol and its major metabolite FF-MAS in an inhibition assay of CYP51 by azoles with atmospheric pressure photoionization based LC-MS/MS. (28/116)

Azoles affect the steroid balance in all biological systems and may therefore be called endocrine disrupters. Lanosterol 14alpha-demethylase (CYP51) is an enzyme inhibited by azoles. Only few data have been reported showing their inhibitory potency since an assay in an in vitro system is not available so far. In the present work an inhibition assay using human recombinant CYP51, coexpressed with human P450 oxido-reductase by the baculovirus/insect cell expression system, and LC-MS/MS as analytical method is described. Atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) sources were used with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer to compare quantitation of lanosterol (substrate) and 4,4-dimethyl-5alpha-cholesta-8,14,24-triene-3beta-ol (FF-MAS) (product of CYP51) with d(6)-2,2,3,4,4,6-cholesterol (d(6)-cholesterol) as internal standard. Optimization of analytical parameters resulted in a LC-APPI-MS/MS method with a LOQ of 10 pg on column for FF-MAS. The sensitivity of the method (LOD 0.5 ng/ml) makes it possible to analyze supernatants of inhibition experiments after precipitation of proteins by isopropanol without any sample enrichment. The coefficient of variation of the analytical method was <20% (n = 5) for FF-MAS, lanosterol and d(6)-cholesterol. The external calibration curve was linear from 1 to 10,000 ng/ml with R(2) >/= 0.999 and an accuracy of 94-115%. Compared with APCI, APPI provides a ten- to 500-fold increase in sensitivity for the analytes in this study. IC(50) values of epoxiconazole and miconazole-two widely used azole fungicides used in agriculture and in human medicine, respectively-were 1.95 microM and 0.057 microM.  (+info)

A synthetic analogue of meiosis-activating sterol (FF-MAS) is a potent agonist promoting meiotic maturation and preimplantation development of mouse oocytes maturing in vitro. (29/116)

BACKGROUND: Follicular fluid-meiosis-activating sterol (FF-MAS) is a factor present in the pre-ovulatory follicle during the time of oocyte maturation. In mouse oocytes maturing in vitro, FF-MAS promotes the completion of meiotic maturation to metaphase II (MII) and improves competence to complete the 2-cell stage to blastocyst transition. We produced analogues of FF-MAS and selected three on the basis of potency to promote the resumption of meiosis by mouse oocytes maintained in meiotic arrest by hypoxanthine. The objective of this study was to determine whether these FF-MAS analogues also affect the quality of oocytes maturing in vitro with respect to the completion of meiotic maturation and augmenting the frequency of development to the blastocyst stage after fertilization in vitro. METHODS: Cumulus cell-enclosed oocytes were isolated from the small antral follicles of 18 or 20 day post-natal mice. These oocytes normally have a reduced competence to complete meiotic maturation and preimplantation embryo development. Oocytes were isolated at the germinal vesicle stage and matured in vitro using media supplemented with 0.1% ethanol, 1 micromol/l FF-MAS, or 0.1-10 micromol/l FF-MAS analogues ZK255884 (884), ZK255933 (933) and ZK255991 (991). Oocytes that progressed to MII were fertilized in vitro and the percentage developing to the 2-cell and blastocyst stages was determined. RESULTS: At 1 micromol/l, 991 and 933 increased the portion of oocytes progressing to MII, whereas the lowest dose of 991 and 884 was ineffective. Treatment of maturing oocytes with either 0.1 or 1 micromol/l 933 dramatically increased oocyte competence to complete preimplantation development. CONCLUSIONS: The synthetic analogue of FF-MAS, ZK255933, is a potent agonist that improves the quality of mouse oocytes matured in vitro. This compound may therefore have therapeutic value for treatment of oocytes from women undergoing therapy for infertility owing to poor oocyte quality.  (+info)

Mouse oocyte meiotic resumption and polar body extrusion in vitro are differentially influenced by FSH, epidermal growth factor and meiosis-activating sterol. (30/116)

BACKGROUND: In this study, we compared the relative ability of FSH (100 mIU/ml), epidermal growth factor (EGF) (10 ng/ml), and follicular-fluid meiosis-activating sterol (FF-MAS, 10 micromol/l) to induce meiotic resumption and polar body I (PBI) extrusion in mouse oocytes. METHODS: Cumulus-enclosed oocytes (CEO) were co-incubated with meiosis-arresting agents, including 4 mmol/l hypoxanthine (Hx), 0.3 mmol/l dibutyryl cAMP (dbcAMP), and 8.5 micromol/l cilostamide, a selective inhibitor of the oocyte-specific phosphodiesterase 3 (PDE 3). RESULTS: In Hx-treated oocytes, FSH, EGF and FF-MAS induced meiosis resumption at very high rates, but only FSH and EGF also promoted PBI extrusion with high frequency. In experiments conducted in the presence of dbcAMP, FF-MAS was unable to promote an increase in germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) rate, whereas FSH and EGF generated a response similar to the Hx groups. Neither FSH, EGF nor FF-MAS caused any change in the meiotic status of CEO when meiotic arrest at the germinal vesicle (GV) stage was maintained by cilostamide. In the presence of Hx, naked oocytes (NkO) co-cultured with their cumulus cells were able to respond to the GVBD-inducing effect of FSH and EGF by resuming meiosis at high rate. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, these results indicate that: (i) a signal triggered in cumulus cells by either FSH or EGF, but not necessarily coincident with FF-MAS, may contribute to meiotic maturation, supporting GVBD and extrusion of PBI; (ii) the transmission of this signal can occur in a paracrine fashion, at least with reference to the breakdown of the GV. It also appears that concomitant regulation of intra-oocyte cAMP degradation is a prerequisite for meiosis resumption.  (+info)

Quantitative proteomic analysis of sokotrasterol sulfate-stimulated primary human endothelial cells. (31/116)

The endothelium forms a continuous monolayer at the interface between blood and tissue and contributes significantly to the sensing and transducing of signals between blood and tissue. New blood vessel formation, or angiogenesis, is initiated by the activation of endothelial cells and is an important process required for various pathological and physiological situations. This study used cleavable isotope-coded affinity tag reagents combined with mass spectrometry to investigate the molecular basis of a recently discovered angiogenesis-promoting steroid, sokotrasterol sulfate. Changes in the relative abundances of over 1000 proteins within human endothelial cells treated with sokotrasterol sulfate and vehicle-treated cells were identified and quantitated using this technique. A method that examines the entire ensemble of quantitative measurements was developed to identify proteins that showed a statistically significant change in relative abundance resulting from treatment with sokotrasterol sulfate. A total of 93 proteins was significantly up-regulated, and 37 were down-regulated in response to sokotrasterol sulfate stimulation of endothelial cells. Among the up-regulated proteins, several were identified that are novel to endothelial cells and are likely involved in cell communication and morphogenesis. These findings are consistent with a role for sokotrasterol sulfate in endothelial sprouting.  (+info)

Domain formation and stability in complex lipid bilayers as reported by cholestatrienol. (32/116)

In this study, we used cholestatrienol (CTL) as a fluorescent reporter molecule to study sterol-rich L(o) domains in complex lipid bilayers. CTL is a fluorescent cholesterol analog that mimics the behavior of cholesterol well. The ability of 12SLPC to quench the fluorescence of cholestatrienol gives a measure of the amount of sterol included in L(o) domains in mixed lipid membranes. The stability of sterol-rich domains formed in complex lipid mixtures containing saturated sphingomyelins, phosphatidylcholines, or galactosylceramide as potential domain-forming lipids were studied. The amount of sterol associated with sterol-rich domains seemed to always increase with increasing temperature. The quenching efficiency was highly dependent on the domain-forming lipid present in complex lipid mixtures. Sphingomyelins formed stable sterol-enriched domains and were able to shield CTL from quenching better than the other lipids included in this study. The saturated phosphatidylcholines also formed sterol-rich domains, but the quenching efficiency in membranes with these was higher than with sphingomyelins and the domains melted at lower temperatures. PGalCer was not able to form sterol-enriched domains. However, we found that PGalCer stabilized sterol-rich domains formed in PSM-containing bilayers. Using a fluorescent ceramide analog, we also demonstrated that N-palmitoyl-ceramide displaced the sterol from sphingolipid-rich domains in mixed bilayer membranes.  (+info)