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(1/1230) Sulphated and unsulphated bile acids in serum, bile, and urine of patients with cholestasis.

Samples of serum, bile, and urine were collected simultaneously from patients with cholestasis of varying aetiology and from patients with cirrhosis; their bile acid composition was determined by gas/liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. In cholestasis, the patterns in all three body fluids differed consistently and strikingly. In serum, cholic acid was the major bile acid and most bile acids (greater than 93%) were unsulphated, whereas, in urine, chenodeoxycholic was the major bile acid, and the majority of bile acids (greater than 60%) were sulphated. Secondary bile acids were virtually absent in bile, serum, and urine. The total amount of bile acids excreted for 24 hours correlated highly with the concentration of serum bile acids; in patients with complete obstruction, urinary excretion averaged 71-6 mg/24 h. In cirrhotic patients, serum bile acids were less raised, and chenodeoxycholic acid was the predominant acid. In healthy controls, serum bile acids were consistently richer in chenodeoxycholic acid than biliary bile acids, and no bile acids were present in urine. No unusual monohydroxy bile acids were present in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis, but, in several patients, there was a considerable amount of hyocholic acid present in the urinary bile acids. The analyses of individual bile acids in serum and urine did not appear to provide helpful information in the differential diagnosis of cholestasis. Thus, in cholestasis, conjugation of chenodeoxycholic acid with sulphate becomes a major biochemical pathway, urine becomes a major route of bile acid excretion, and abnormal bile acids are formed.  (+info)

(2/1230) Factor VII as a marker of hepatocellular synthetic function in liver disease.

Factor VII levels have been measured in 100 patients with liver disease following parenteral vitamin K1 therapy. There was good agreement between specific factor VII measurements and the one-stage prothrombin time apart from six patients with compensated cirrhosis in whom the prothrombin time was prolonged despite the presence of normal factor VII levels. A mean activity of 58% was found in patients with cirrhosis. Cirrhotic patients with features of hepatic decompensation had a significantly lower mean level of activity (40%) than the "contrast" patients with surgical obstruction of the major bile ducts (93%). Patients with chronic active liver disease had moderate depression of factor VII levels and those with non-cirrhotic liver damage had mean activities similar to the contrast group. Factor VII levels could not be correlated with BSP retention but there was a correlation with serum albumin concentration. It is concluded that the prothrombin time using Quick test with a standardized thromboplastin showing good sensitivity to factor VII, eg, the Manchester reagent (BCT), provides a reliable index of coagulability in chronic liver disease, and specific factor VII assays are not indicated.  (+info)

(3/1230) An interpretation of the serum alkaline phosphatase isoenzyme patterns in patients with obstructive liver disease.

Earlier studies have identified two main isoenzymes of alkaline phosphatase in the sera of patients with obstructive liver disease. This paper reports on a study of these isoenzymes in specific types of liver disease where the pathology in relation to bile duct obstruction is known. The results have been used to support the theory that in biliary obstruction the increase in serum alkaline phosphatase is in part due to regurgitation of the biliary isoenzymes.  (+info)

(4/1230) Villous adenoma of the bile ducts: a case report and a review of the reported cases in Korea.

Villous adenomas are benign epithelial lesions with malignant potential which can occur at any site in the gastrointestinal tract. They are usually encountered in the rectum and colon, less frequently in the small bowel and very rarely in the biliary trees. Nine cases of bile duct villous adenomas have been reported in the literature. However, 4 cases of bile duct villous adenomas have been reported in the Korean literature. Recently, we experienced a case of villous adenoma in the common hepatic duct in a 77-year-old man presenting with obstructive jaundice in which preoperative histologic diagnosis of villous adenoma played a critical role in managing this patient. Herein, we present a case report of bile duct villous adenoma and a review of the reported cases in Korea to help define and manage this rare disease entity in the bile ducts. In addition, confusing nomenclature of bile duct adenomas is discussed.  (+info)

(5/1230) High plasma cholesterol in drug-induced cholestasis is associated with enhanced hepatic cholesterol synthesis.

In alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate-treated mice, plasma phospholipid (PL) levels were elevated 10- and 13-fold at 48 and 168 h, respectively, whereas free cholesterol (FC) levels increased between 48 h (17-fold) and 168 h (39-fold). Nearly all of these lipids were localized to lipoprotein X-like particles in the low-density lipoprotein density range. The PL fatty acyl composition was indicative of biliary origin. Liver cholesterol and PL content were near normal at all time points. Hepatic hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA reductase activity was increased sixfold at 48 h, and cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase activity was decreased by approximately 70% between 24 and 72 h. These findings suggest a metabolic basis for the appearance of abnormal plasma lipoproteins during cholestasis. Initially, PL and bile acids appear in plasma where they serve to promote the efflux of cholesterol from hepatic cell membranes. Hepatic cholesterol synthesis is then likely stimulated in the response to the depletion of hepatic cell membranes of cholesterol. We speculate that the enhanced synthesis of cholesterol and impaired conversion to bile acids, particularly during the early phase of drug response, contribute to the accumulation of FC in the plasma.  (+info)

(6/1230) Obstructive jaundice and acute cholangitis due to papillary stenosis.

Papillary stenosis is characterized by fixed fibrosis leading to structural outflow obstruction and it is usually secondary to inflammation and fibrosis from the chronic passage of gallstones, episodes of acute pancreatitis, chronic pancreatitis, sclerosing cholangitis, peptic ulcer disease, and cholesterolosis. However, obstructive jaundice with or without acute cholangitis which leads the physician to suspect the presence of malignancy as a cause is a rare manifestation of papillary stenosis. We report here a case of papillary stenosis presenting with obstructive jaundice and acute cholangitis. The lesion was so difficult to exclude the presence of malignancy preoperatively and intraoperatively that a pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy was performed. Histologic examination of the resected specimen revealed fibrosis, adenomatoid ductal hyperplasia, and mild chronic inflammation of the papilla of Vater and distal common bile duct.  (+info)

(7/1230) MRP3, a new ATP-binding cassette protein localized to the canalicular domain of the hepatocyte.

Bile secretion in liver is driven in large part by ATP-binding cassette (ABC)-type proteins that reside in the canalicular membrane and effect ATP-dependent transport of bile acids, phospholipids, and non-bile acid organic anions. Canalicular ABC-type proteins can be classified into two subfamilies based on membrane topology and sequence identity: MDR1, MDR3, and SPGP resemble the multidrug resistance (MDR) P-glycoprotein, whereas MRP2 is similar in structure and sequence to the multidrug resistance protein MRP1 and transports similar substrates. We now report the isolation of the rMRP3 gene from rat liver, which codes for a protein 1522 amino acids in length that exhibits extensive sequence similarity with MRP1 and MRP2. Northern blot analyses indicate that rMRP3 is expressed in lung and intestine of Sprague-Dawley rats as well as in liver of Eisai hyperbilirubinemic rats and TR- mutant rats, which are deficient in MRP2 expression. rMRP3 expression is also transiently induced in liver shortly after birth and during obstructive cholestasis. Antibodies raised against MRP3 recognize a polypeptide of 190-200 kDa, which is reduced in size to 155-165 kDa after treatment with endoglycosidases. Immunoblot analysis and immunoconfocal microscopy indicate that rMRP3 is present in the canalicular membrane, suggesting that it may play a role in bile formation.  (+info)

(8/1230) The pathogenetic role of endogenous angiotensin II in stress ulcer in obstructive jaundice rats.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the pathogenetic role of endogenous angiotensin II (Ang II) in the mechanism of stress ulcer in obstructive jaundice rats and to detect the effect of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) on stress ulcer in obstructive jaundice rats. METHODS: After common bile duct ligation (CBDL) in Wistar rats, the content of plasma and gastric mucosal Ang II, gastric mucosal blood flow (GMBF) and gastric mucosal damage were measured, and the relationship among them was analyzed. RESULTS: The plasma Ang II contents increased much more significantly at 1, 3, 7 and 14 days following CBDL than those in non-CBDL rats (P < 0.05, < 0.01, < 0.01 and < 0.01, respectively). Within 120 minutes following cold-restraint stress, plasma and gastric mucosal Ang II contents were elevated, GMBF decreased, and ulcer index and gastric mucosal damage increased more significantly than those in non-cold-restraint stress rats (P < 0.05, < 0.05, < 0.01, < 0.01 and < 0.05, respectively). Administration of an ACEI, enalaprili, to CBDL rats (5 mg.kg-1.day-1, orally for two days) before stress reduced both the plasma and gastric mucosal Ang II levels, inhibited the decrease of GMBF and decreased ulcer index and gastric mucosal damage (P < 0.001, < 0.01, < 0.01, < 0.01 and < 0.05, respectively). CONCLUSION: The endogenous Ang II plays a significant pathogenetic role in the development of stress ulcer in obstructive jaundice rats, and ACEI may prevent stress ulcer.  (+info)