(1/263) Expanded safety and immunogenicity of a bivalent, oral, attenuated cholera vaccine, CVD 103-HgR plus CVD 111, in United States military personnel stationed in Panama.
To provide optimum protection against classical and El Tor biotypes of Vibrio cholerae O1, a single-dose, oral cholera vaccine was developed by combining two live, attenuated vaccine strains, CVD 103-HgR (classical, Inaba) and CVD 111 (El Tor, Ogawa). The vaccines were formulated in a double-chamber sachet; one chamber contained lyophilized bacteria, and the other contained buffer. A total of 170 partially-immune American soldiers stationed in Panama received one of the following five formulations: (a) CVD 103-HgR at 10(8) CFU plus CVD 111 at 10(7) CFU, (b) CVD 103-HgR at 10(8) CFU plus CVD 111 at 10(6) CFU, (c) CVD 103-HgR alone at 10(8) CFU, (d) CVD 111 alone at 10(7) CFU, or (e) inactivated Escherichia coli placebo. Among those who received CVD 111 at the high or low dose either alone or in combination with CVD 103-HgR, 8 of 103 had diarrhea, defined as three or more liquid stools. None of the 32 volunteers who received CVD 103-HgR alone or the 35 placebo recipients had diarrhea. CVD 111 was detected in the stools of 46% of the 103 volunteers who received it. About 65% of all persons who received CVD 103-HgR either alone or in combination had a fourfold rise in Inaba vibriocidal titers. The postvaccination geometric mean titers were comparable among groups, ranging from 450 to 550. Ogawa vibriocidal titers were about twice as high in persons who received CVD 111 as in those who received CVD 103-HgR alone (600 versus 300). The addition of CVD 111 improved the overall seroconversion rate and doubled the serum Ogawa vibriocidal titers, suggesting that the combination of an El Tor and a classical cholera strain is desirable. While CVD 111 was previously found to be well tolerated in semiimmune Peruvians, the adverse effects observed in this study indicate that this strain requires further attenuation before it can be safely used in nonimmune populations. (+info)
(2/263) Antibody responses in the lower respiratory tract and male urogenital tract in humans after nasal and oral vaccination with cholera toxin B subunit.
Nasal vaccine delivery is superior to oral delivery in inducing specific immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgG antibody responses in the upper respiratory tract. Although an antibody response in the nasal passages is important in protecting against primary colonization with lung pathogens, antibodies in the lungs are usually required as well. We immunized 15 male volunteers twice nasally or orally with cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) and determined the specific antibody levels in serum, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, and urine before and 2 weeks after immunization. Nasal immunization induced fivefold increases in the levels of specific IgA antibodies in BAL fluid of most volunteers, whereas there were no significant specific IgA responses after oral immunization. The specific IgG antibody level increased eightfold in BAL fluid in the nasally vaccinated subjects, and the major part of IgG had most probably been transferred from serum. Since the specific IgG response in serum was lower in the individuals vaccinated orally, the IgG response in BAL fluid in this group was also lower and not significant. In conclusion, nasal immunization is also preferable to the oral route when vaccinating against lower respiratory tract infections, and a systemic immune response is considerably more important in the lower than in the upper respiratory tract. Moreover, both nasal and oral immunizations were able to stimulate 6- to 10-fold specific IgA and IgG responses in urine in about half of the individuals, which indicates that distant mucosal vaccination might be used to prevent adhesion of pathogens to the urogenital tract. (+info)
(3/263) Mucosal and systemic immune responses in humans after primary and booster immunizations with orally administered invasive and noninvasive live attenuated bacteria.
The mucosal and systemic immune responses after primary and booster immunizations with two attenuated live oral vaccine strains derived from a noninvasive (Vibrio cholerae) and an invasive (Salmonella typhi) enteric pathogen were comparatively evaluated. Vaccination with S. typhi Ty21a elicited antibody-secreting cell (ASC) responses specific for S. typhi O9, 12 lipopolysaccharide (LPS), as well as significant increases in levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA antibodies to the same antigen in serum. A strong systemic CD4(+) T-helper type 1 cell-mediated immune (CMI) response was also induced. In contrast to results with Ty21a, no evidence of a CMI response was obtained after primary immunization with V. cholerae CVD 103-HgR in spite of the good immunogenicity of the vaccine. Volunteers who received a single dose of CVD 103-HgR primarily developed an IgM ASC response against whole vaccine cells and purified V. cholerae Inaba LPS, and seroconversion of serum vibriocidal antibodies occurred in four of five subjects. Serum IgG anti-cholera toxin antibody titers were of lower magnitude. For both live vaccines, the volunteers still presented significant local immunity 14 months after primary immunization, as revealed by the elevated baseline antibody titers at the time of the booster immunization and the lower ASC, serum IgG, and vibriocidal antibody responses after the booster immunization. These results suggest that local immunity may interfere with colonization of the gut by both vaccine strains at least up to 14 months after basis immunization. Interestingly, despite a low secondary ASC response, Ty21a was able to boost both humoral (anti-LPS systemic IgG and IgA) and CMI responses. Evidence of a CMI response was also observed for one of three volunteers given a cholera vaccine booster dose. The direct comparison of results with two attenuated live oral vaccine strains in human volunteers clearly showed that the capacity of the vaccine strain to colonize specific body compartments conditions the pattern of vaccine-induced immune responses. (+info)
(4/263) Effect of small bowel bacterial overgrowth on the immunogenicity of single-dose live oral cholera vaccine CVD 103-HgR.
Several live oral vaccines (polio, bovine rotavirus, CVD 103-HgR cholera) are less immunogenic in developing than in industrialized countries. It was hypothesized that proximal small bowel bacterial overgrowth (common in children in less developed countries but rare in industrialized settings) diminishes the vibriocidal antibody response to CVD 103-HgR. In total, 202 fasting Santiago schoolchildren aged 5-9 years had lactulose breath H2 tests to detect proximal small bowel bacteria 1 day before ingesting CVD 103-HgR. Florid small bowel overgrowth was observed in 10 (5.6%) of 178 analyzable children. In children with florid overgrowth, vibriocidal seroconversion differed little from other children (60% vs. 67%), but the geometric mean titer was lower (160 vs. 368; P=.25). By logistic regression, increased peak breath H2 at small bowel time points was associated with diminished seroconversion (P=.04), as was the interaction of H2 value and weight (children >25 kg had lower seroconversion rates among subjects with heaviest overgrowth). (+info)
(5/263) Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentered trial of the efficacy of a single dose of live oral cholera vaccine CVD 103-HgR in preventing cholera following challenge with Vibrio cholerae O1 El tor inaba three months after vaccination.
CVD 103-HgR is a live oral cholera vaccine strain constructed by deleting 94% of the gene for the enzymatically active A subunit of cholera toxin from classical Inaba Vibrio cholerae O1 569B; the strain also contains a mercury resistance gene as an identifying marker. This vaccine was well tolerated and immunogenic in double-blind, controlled studies and was protective in open-label studies of volunteers challenged with V. cholerae O1. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study of vaccine efficacy was designed to test longer-term protection of CVD 103-HgR against moderate and severe El Tor cholera in U.S. volunteers. A total of 85 volunteers (50 at the University of Maryland and 35 at Children's Hospital Medical Center/University of Cincinnati) were recruited for vaccination and challenge with wild-type V. cholerae El Tor Inaba. Volunteers were randomized in a double-blind manner to receive, with buffer, a single oral dose of either CVD 103-HgR (2 x 10(8) to 8 x 10(8) CFU) or placebo (killed E. coli K-12). About 3 months after immunization, 51 of these volunteers were orally challenged with 10(5) CFU of virulent V. cholerae O1 El Tor Inaba strain N16961, prepared from a standardized frozen inoculum. Ninety-one percent of the vaccinees had a >/=4-fold rise in serum vibriocidal antibodies after vaccination. After challenge, 9 (39%) of the 23 placebo recipients and 1 (4%) of the 28 vaccinees had moderate or severe diarrhea (>/=3-liter diarrheal stool) (P < 0.01; protective efficacy, 91%). A total of 21 (91%) of 23 placebo recipients and 5 (18%) of 28 vaccinees had any diarrhea (P < 0.001; protective efficacy, 80%). Peak stool V. cholerae excretion among placebo recipients was 1.1 x 10(7) CFU/g and among vaccinees was 4.9 x 10(2) CFU/g (P < 0.001). This vaccine could therefore be a safe and effective tool to prevent cholera in travelers. (+info)
(6/263) Mass vaccination with a two-dose oral cholera vaccine in a refugee camp.
In refugee settings, the use of cholera vaccines is controversial since a mass vaccination campaign might disrupt other priority interventions. We therefore conducted a study to assess the feasibility of such a campaign using a two-dose oral cholera vaccine in a refugee camp. The campaign, using killed whole-cell/recombinant B-subunit cholera vaccine, was carried out in October 1997 among 44,000 south Sudanese refugees in Uganda. Outcome variables included the number of doses administered, the drop-out rate between the two rounds, the proportion of vaccine wasted, the speed of administration, the cost of the campaign, and the vaccine coverage. Overall, 63,220 doses of vaccine were administered. At best, 200 vaccine doses were administered per vaccination site and per hour. The direct cost of the campaign amounted to US$ 14,655, not including the vaccine itself. Vaccine coverage, based on vaccination cards, was 83.0% and 75.9% for the first and second rounds, respectively. Mass vaccination of a large refugee population with an oral cholera vaccine therefore proved to be feasible. A pre-emptive vaccination strategy could be considered in stable refugee settings and in urban slums in high-risk areas. However, the potential cost of the vaccine and the absence of quickly accessible stockpiles are major drawbacks for its large-scale use. (+info)
(7/263) Optimizing the germfree mouse model for in vivo evaluation of oral Vibrio cholerae vaccine and vector strains.
The germfree mouse model of Vibrio cholerae infection can be used to judge immune responses to V. cholerae vaccine and vector strains. In the original model, a single oral inoculation was administered on day 0, a booster oral inoculation was administered on day 14, and immune responses were analyzed with samples collected on day 28. Unfortunately, immune responses in this model frequently were low level, and interanimal variability occurred. In order to improve this model, we evaluated various primary and booster V. cholerae inoculation schedules. The most prominent systemic and mucosal antibody responses were measured in mice that received a multiple primary inoculation series on days 0, 2, 4, and 6 and booster inoculations on days 28 and 42. These modifications result in improved preliminary evaluation of V. cholerae vaccine and vector strains in mice. (+info)
(8/263) Use of lambda phage S and R gene products in an inducible lysis system for Vibrio cholerae- and Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium-based DNA vaccine delivery systems.
Novel methods for adapting DNA vaccine technology to the prevention of mucosal diseases are greatly needed. Here we show that regulated expression of phage lambda lysis genes S and R causes dramatic lysis of both Vibrio cholerae and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium cells with concomitant release of plasmid DNA into the surrounding media. We also used single and double DNase mutant strains to show that secreted V. cholerae DNases can adversely affect the integrity of DNA molecules released upon lysis. These results suggest that incorporation of lambda SR-mediated lysis constructs and DNA stabilizing mutations into candidate live attenuated bacterial vaccines offers a promising approach for the development of effective mucosal DNA delivery vectors for humans. (+info)