Pulse pressure correlates in humans with a proscillaridin A immunoreactive compound. (9/11)

Endogenous digitalis-like factors in humans are presumably cardenolides and bufadienolides. To test whether bufadienolide-like substances may circulate in human blood, we used antibodies from rabbits against the bufadienolide proscillaridin A to measure the concentration of cross-reacting material in human plasma with an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. IgG had an apparent affinity of 2 x 10(-9) mol/L for proscillaridin A. It was specific for bufadienolides and did not cross-react with cardenolides or several steroid hormones. Extraction of human plasma with ethanol and fractionation of this extract over a high-performance liquid chromatographic reverse-phase C18 column with a propanol/isopropanol gradient resulted in the separation of three peaks of increasing hydrophobicity (ED1, ED2, ED3) that inhibited the sodium pump of human red blood cells and cross-reacted with proscillaridin A antibodies. The concentration of the proscillaridin A immunoreactivity ED1 in normotensive subjects had a geometric mean of 0.1 nmol/L, with a dispersion factor of 8.77. ED1 correlated positively in a group of 60 normotensive subjects, 22 patients with hypertension, and 19 patients with chronic renal failure with mean arterial blood pressure (log ED1 [nmol/L] = 0.013 x mm Hg-2.17, r = .25, P < .05), systolic pressure (log ED1 [nmol/L] = 0.010 x mm Hg-2.23, r = .32, P < .01), and pulse pressure (log ED1 [nmol/L] = 0.019 x mm Hg-1.80, r = .38, P < .0001). There was no correlation with other parameters of the donors. We conclude that several substances cross-reacting with proscillaridin A antibodies and inhibiting the sodium pump of human red blood cells circulate in human blood. The level of one of these substances (ED1) correlates with mean arterial and pulse pressures.  (+info)

Radioimmunological determination of serum 3 beta-hydroxy-5-cholenoic acid in normal subjects and patients with liver disease. (10/11)

A radioimmunoassay for the determination of 3 beta-hydroxy-5-cholenoic acid in human serum has been developed, using 3 beta-hydroxy-5-cholenoyl-thyroglobulin as immunogen and 3 beta-hydroxy-5-cholenoylglycyl-125I histamine as radioactive ligand. The association constant was 6.3 X 10(8) l/mol. Cross reactivity with other bile acids of human serum was not detectable, but was 5.6% with cholesterol. Serum sample preparation included extraction of 3 beta-hydroxy-5-cholenoic acid from serum, solvolysis of sulfates, hydrolysis of conjugates, and separation from cholesterol by thin-layer chromatography. Serum concentrations of 3 beta-hydroxy-5-cholenoic acid were 0.23 +/- SD 0.12 mumol/l and 0.21 +/- SD 0.09 mumol/l in healthy males and females, respectively. In patients with primary biliary cirrhosis the serum concentration of 3 beta-hydroxy-5-cholenoic acid and the quotient 3 beta-hydroxy-5-cholenoic acid over total 3 alpha-hydroxy-bile acids (measured enzymatically) were significantly higher (P less than 0.02) than in patients with chronic active hepatitis or alcoholic cirrhosis. Analysis of 17 sera with elevated concentration of 3 beta-hydroxy-5-cholenoic acid by radioimmunoassay and capillary gas-liquid chromatography showed a close correlation (r = 0.91, slope = 0.97) between the results of the two methods.  (+info)

Synthesis of 11, 12-2H2- and 11, 12-3H2-labeled chenodeoxycholic and lithocholic acids. (11/11)

Deuterium- and tritium-labeled chenodeoxycholic acid and lithocholic were prepared by catalytic reduction of their respective delta11 derivatives. Structures of the intermediates and their isotopic purity were verified by chemical ionization and electron impact mass spectrometry and by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Experimental conditions for reductive deuteration were defined which gave complete reduction of the olefin and a product of high isotopic purity. Conditions for optimal tritiation were developed with which little exchange of protons with the solvent occurred; the product had high specific activity. To test biological stability of the label, the 3H-labeled chenodeoxycholic acid was administered simultaneously with 14C-labeled chenodeoxycholic acid to two healthy subjects and the 3H/14C ratio in bile was determined daily for several days. The ratio remained identical to that administered, suggesting that the 11,12-3Hlabel in chenodeoxycholic acid is stable during enterohepatic cycling and can be used for valid estimates fo bile acid kinetics in many by the isotope dilution technique.  (+info)