(1/81) The predictive value of transabdominal ultrasonography in the diagnosis of biliary tract complications after orthotopic liver transplantation.
BACKGROUND: In transplant recipients with choledococholedocostomy (CDCD), endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of biliary leak or strictures. Transabdominal ultrasonography (TAUS) has been used to screen patients with suspected biliary tract complications, prior to ERCP, although the clinical effectiveness remains unclear. AIMS: To assess the predictive value of TAUS in the diagnosis of biliary tract complications after liver transplantation. METHODS: 144 consecutive ERCP and corresponding ultrasonogram reports performed over a 67 month period in 79 patients after liver transplantation were analysed retrospectively. RESULTS: 77 ERCP patients had both a TAUS and a successful ERCP. Biliary tract abnormalities were found at TAUS in 49 (64%) of the 77 patients. TAUS had an overall sensitivity of 77%, and specificity of 67%, with positive and negative predictive values of 26% and 95% respectively, when adjusted for the prevalence rate of biliary complications after liver transplantation of 12.8% in our population. The use of bile duct calibre as sole criterion for an abnormal scan improved the specificity (76%) and with a corresponding reduction in sensitivity (66%). The risk of false negative TAUS was similar in both the early and late post-transplant periods. CONCLUSIONS: A normal TAUS after liver transplantation with CDCD makes the presence of biliary complications unlikely. (+info)
(2/81) Results of choledochojejunostomy in the treatment of biliary complications after liver transplantation in the era of nonsurgical therapies.
Advances in radiological and endoscopic techniques have allowed many biliary complications after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) to be managed without surgery. The influence of nonsurgical management on the outcome of patients requiring surgical revision has not been addressed. We reviewed our 10-year experience (October 1988 to January 1998) of Roux-en-Y choledochojejunostomy (CDJ) to treat biliary complications after OLT. Forty-six patients underwent CDJ for biliary complications (32 men, 14 women; age, 22 to 65 years; median, 60 years). Biliary reconstruction at the time of OLT was duct to duct in 41 patients, primary CDJ in 3 patients, and gall bladder conduit in 2 patients. T-tubes were used only in patients with gallbladder conduit. The indication for CDJ was biliary leak (23 patients), stricture (20 patients), biliary stones (2 patients), and biliary sludge (1 patient). Two patients (4.3%) had associated hepatic artery thrombosis. The bile leaks were diagnosed at a median of 29 days post-OLT (range, 2 to 65 days) and strictures at a median of 2 years (range, 33 days to 6.5 years) post-OLT. Before surgery, 25 patients (54%) underwent an attempt at radiological or endoscopic therapeutic intervention that failed. Median follow-up was 5 years (range, 9 months to 10 years). Early complications occurred in 12 patients (26%); the most common was chest infection (4 patients). There were 3 perioperative deaths (6%); 1 death was directly related to surgery. Late complications, mainly anastomotic strictures, occurred in 10 patients (22%), half of which were successfully treated by biliary balloon dilatation. The complication rate post-CDJ was less in those who underwent a failed nonsurgical approach than those proceeding straight to surgery (9 of 25 patients; 36% v 13 of 21 patients; 62%; P =.21, not significant). The procedure-related mortality for surgical revision of biliary complications after OLT is low, but early and late complications are common. A failed attempt at nonsurgical management does not increase the complications of reconstructive surgery. Strictures after CDJ should be considered for biliary balloon dilatation. (+info)
(3/81) Internal biliary stenting in orthotopic liver transplantation.
Biliary complications account for significant morbidity in orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT), with a reported incidence ranging from 6% to 47%, and many centers are reassessing the need and options available for stenting the biliary anastomosis. We report on our experience using a 6F Silastic, double-J, ureteral stent as an internal biliary stent in OLT. From October 15, 1995, to September 30, 1998, a total of 99 patients at our institution underwent 108 OLTs. Of these, 77 patients received an end-to-end choledochocholedochostomy over an internal stent. Three patients died within 1 week post-OLT, leaving 74 patients for evaluation (follow-up, 2 to 38 months). Stents were placed transanastomotic and transsphincteric at the time of OLT and secured with a dissolvable suture. At 4 to 6 weeks post-OLT, stents visible within the biliary tree on kidney, ureters, and bladder radiograph were removed endoscopically. Graft and patient survival rates were 92% and 96%, respectively. There were 12 biliary complications (18%): anastomotic leak in 6 patients (9%), anastomotic stricture in 5 patients (7.6%), and stent migration in 1 patient (1.5%). Thirty-two patients (43%) passed the biliary stent without intervention, whereas 42 patients (57%) underwent esophagogastro duodenoscopy (EGD) stent removal at 4 to 6 weeks without incident. Treatment of the complications included percutaneous drainage, endoscopic dilatation with stenting, and/or conversion to Roux-en-Y choledochojejunostomy. The use of the 6 F Silastic, double-J, ureteral stent provides a safe and effective means of stenting the biliary anastomosis in OLT. Major advantages to this method are that it: (1) is completely internal, (2) is biliary decompressive, (3) is radiopaque, (4) can be spontaneously passed, and (5) is easily accessible for EGD extraction. (+info)
(4/81) Chemoprevention of biliary carcinogenesis in syrian hamsters by the novel carboxamide derivative IS-741 after initiation with N-nitrosobis(2-oxopropyl)amine (BOP).
To elucidate the possible inhibitory effect of a novel carboxamide derivative (IS-741) on biliary carcinogenesis, Syrian hamsters were subjected to cholecystoduodenostomy and ligation of the distal end of the common duct, and then given a regular diet (group I) or a diet containing 200 p.p.m. of IS-741 (group II). All hamsters were subcutaneously injected with N-nitrosobis(2-oxopropyl)amine until 10 weeks after surgery, and continued to feed on their respective dietary regimen until termination of the experiment at 16 weeks after surgery. Biliary adenocarcinomas were evaluated histologically. Non-cancerous and cancerous hepatobiliary tract tissues were analyzed for phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) activity, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and the concentrations of prostaglandin (PG), i.e., prostaglandin E(2), 6-ketoprostaglandin F(1)alpha and thromboxane B(2). IS-741 significantly inhibited the development and multiplicity of hepatobiliary adenocarcinomas and reduced the proliferating cell nuclear antigen labeling indices in non-cancerous hepatobiliary tissues, compared with group I. The anti-cancerous effect of IS-741 was associated with a significant inhibition of PLA(2) and MPO levels in non-cancerous tissues of the extrahepatic biliary tract and the liver, and in cancerous tissue of the liver. Furthermore, IS-741 reduced the production of PGs in non-cancerous hepatobiliary tissues, compared with group I. Although the precise mechanism of action of IS-741 in preventing biliary tumorigenesis remains to be elucidated, it is likely to be related to modulation of arachidonic acid metabolism and/or suppression of neutrophil accumulation. (+info)
(5/81) Biliary anastomosis in living related liver transplantation using the right liver lobe: techniques and complications.
Since the introduction of adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation using the right lobe of the liver, biliary problems have led the list of complications resulting in postoperative morbidity. We report our experience with the first 30 living donor liver transplantations performed in our institution from August 1998 to January 2000. Patients were 21 men and 9 women, with a mean age 45 +/- 16 years. Mean recipient weight was 65.1 +/- 17.9 kg, mean graft weight was 877 +/- 146 g, and the mean graft-recipient weight ratio was 1.5 +/- 0.6. Patient and graft survival rates were 83.3% and 80%, respectively. Biliary anastomosis was either an end-to-end hepaticocholedochostomy with a T-drain or hepaticojejunostomy. Mean follow-up was 217.4 +/- 149.8 days. The overall complication rate was 26.6% (8 of 30 procedures) and was directly correlated to the type of anastomosis and number of bile ducts. Surgical revision was necessary in all cases. Biliary complications were not the primary cause of graft loss. Adult living donor liver transplantation using the right lobe is a successful procedure, with graft and patient survival similar to those in cadaver full-organ transplantation. Postoperative morbidity, mainly caused by biliary leak, was directly related to the number of ducts and type of anastomosis. With increasing experience, we have better defined our plane of transection on the hilar plate, with the goal of obtaining only 1 biliary duct for the anastomosis. We also improved our parenchymal transection technique, which resulted in a decreased incidence of leak at the cut-surface area. (+info)
(6/81) Randomized trial of choledochocholedochostomy with or without a T tube in orthotopic liver transplantation.
OBJECTIVE: To compare the incidence of biliary complications after liver transplantation in patients undergoing choledochocholedochostomy reconstruction with or without T tube in a multicenter, prospective, randomized trial. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Several reports have suggested that biliary anastomosis without a T tube is a safe method of biliary reconstruction that could avoid complications related to the use of T tubes. No large prospective randomized trial has so far been published to compare the two techniques. METHODS: One hundred eighty recipients of orthotopic liver transplantation were randomly assigned to choledochocholedochostomy with (n = 90) or without (n = 90) a T tube in six French liver transplantation centers. All types of biliary complications were taken into account. RESULTS: The overall biliary complication rate was increased in the T-tube group, even though these complications did not lead to an increase in surgical or radiologic therapeutic procedures. The major significant complication was cholangitis in the T-tube group; this did not occur in the other group. The incidence of biliary fistula was 10% in the T-tube group and 2.2% in the group without a T tube. Other biliary complications were similar. The complication rate of cholangiography performed with the T tube was greater than with other types of biliary exploration. The graft and patient survival rates were similar in the two groups. CONCLUSION: This study is the first large prospective, randomized trial of biliary complications with or without a T tube. The authors found an increase in the biliary complication rate in the T-tube group, which was linked to minor complications. The T tube did not provide a safer access to the biliary tree compared with the others types of biliary explorations. The authors recommend the performance of choledochocholedochostomy without a T tube in liver transplantation. (+info)
(7/81) Late development of bile duct cancer in patients who had biliary-enteric drainage for benign disease: a follow-up study of more than 1,000 patients.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the correlation between biliary-enteric surgical drainage and the late development of cholangiocarcinoma of the biliary tract. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: In patients with biliary-enteric drainage, reflux of intestinal contents into the bile duct may occur and cause cholangitis, which is regarded as the most serious complication of these procedures. Lithiasis of the biliary tract and a previous biliary-enteric anastomosis have both been suggested to favor the late onset of cholangiocarcinoma. METHODS: Consecutive patients (n = 1,003) undergoing three different procedures of biliary-enteric anastomosis (transduodenal sphincteroplasty, choledochoduodenostomy, and hepaticojejunostomy) between 1967 and 1997 were included in this study. The postoperative clinical course and long-term outcome were evaluated by a retrospective review of the hospital records and follow-up. Mean follow-up was 129.6 months. RESULTS: Fifty-five (5.5%) cases of primary bile duct cancer were found among the 1,003 patients at intervals of 132 to 218 months from biliary-enteric anastomosis. The incidence of cholangiocarcinoma in the three groups was 5.8% in transduodenal sphincteroplasty patients, 7.6% in choledochoduodenostomy patients, and 1.9% in hepaticojejunostomy patients. The incidence of malignancy related to the different underlying diagnosis was 5.9%, 7.2%, and 1.9% in patients with choledocholithiasis, sphincter of Oddi stenosis, and postoperative benign stricture, respectively. Although only one patient who developed cholangiocarcinoma had previous concurrent lithiasis of the biliary tract, 40 patients had experienced mostly severe, recurrent cholangitis. No case of malignancy occurred in patients scored as having no cholangitis in the early and long-term postoperative outcome. Univariate and multivariate analyses have shown the presence of cholangitis as the only factor affecting the incidence of cholangiocarcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic inflammatory changes consequent to biliary-enteric drainage should be closely monitored for the late development of biliary tract malignancies. (+info)
(8/81) Biliary decompression reduces the susceptibility to ethanol-induced ulcer in jaundiced rats.
We investigated the gastric response to an ulcerogenic irritant and the change in gastric functions in an experimental rat model of obstructive jaundice, with or without biliary drainage. After biliary obstruction for 14 days, rats with ligated bile duct (BDL) were randomly divided into three groups: BDL group without biliary drainage, BDL followed by choledochoduodenostomy (CD) or a choledochovesical fistula (CVF). The gastric functions were evaluated 2 weeks after the surgery. Gastric damage, induced by orogastric administration of ethanol, was evaluated 30 min later using a lesion index and microscopic scoring was then performed on fixed stomachs. Basal gastric acid secretion was measured by the pyloric ligation method. The lesion index and maximum lesion depth did not differ in the BDL and sham groups, while they were significantly reduced in the CD group. Gastric acid output and secretory volume were reduced in the BDL group compared to the sham group, while these reductions were abolished in the CD group. Afferent denervation with capsaicin further reduced the ulcer index in the later group. Our data suggest that gastric mucosal susceptibility to injury is dependent on the normal flow of bile into the duodenal lumen, which appears to be a requirement for adaptive gastric cytoprotection. (+info)