Erich Muhe and the rejection of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (1985): a surgeon ahead of his time.
During the early 1980s, news of Semm's laparoscopic appendectomy was rippling through German medical circles. Erich Muhe, fascinated by Semm's technique and spurred by successes of the Erlangen endoscopists, came up with the idea of laparoscopic removal of gallstones. In 1984, Muhe had already worked out the details of an operative laparoscope, the "Galloscope," and on September 12, 1985, he carried out the first laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Later, he modified his technique and operated through a trocar sleeve. Finally, he designed an "open laparoscope" with a circular light. By March 1987, Muhe had conducted 97 endoscopic gallbladder removals. He published information about his technique at the Congress of the German Surgical Society (April 1986) and at other surgical meetings in Germany. His concept, however, was ignored. In the middle of the 1980s, the surgical community was still not prepared for the era of "minimally invasive therapy." Erich Muhe was a surgeon ahead of his time. (+info)
The best management for 'crescendo biliary colic' is urgent laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
Gallbladder disease due to stones is well recognised as falling into two categories, presenting with either chronic symptoms or developing acute cholecystitis or other complications. We describe an intermediate group of 14 patients (11 women, three men, median age 31 years) presenting with 4-14 days of at least daily attacks of resolving biliary colic, who underwent early laparoscopic cholecystectomy within 24 hours of presentation. None had any evidence of acute inflammation, either at laparoscopy or on histology. Their surgery was straightforward with operating times ranging from 35-80 minutes and no complications. Patients with 'crescendo biliary colic' are often young women who can rarely afford invalidity. Rather than the current practice of analgesia for each attack and elective surgery weeks later, they are optimally managed by urgent laparoscopic cholecystectomy, preventing the development of complications and minimising the need for further medical involvement. (+info)
Depression of liver protein synthesis during surgery is prevented by growth hormone.
This study was undertaken to elucidate the specific effects of growth hormone (GH) on liver protein metabolism in humans during surgery. Otherwise healthy patients scheduled for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomized into controls (n = 9) or pretreatment with 12 units of GH for 1 day (GH 1, n = 9) or daily for 5 days (GH 5, n = 10). The fractional synthesis rate of liver proteins, as assessed by flooding with [2H5]phenylalanine, was higher in the GH 5 group (22.0 +/- 6.9%/day, mean +/- SD, P < 0.05) than in the control (16.1 +/- 3.1%/day) and GH 1 (16.5 +/- 5.5%/day) groups. During surgery, the fraction of polyribosomes in the liver, as assessed by ribosome analysis, decreased in the control group by approximately 12% (P < 0.01) but did not decrease in the GH-treated groups. In addition, the concentrations of the essential amino acids and aspartate in the liver decreased in response to GH treatment. In conclusion, GH pretreatment decreases hepatic free amino acid concentrations and preserves liver protein synthesis during surgery. (+info)
Complications of cholecystectomy: risks of the laparoscopic approach and protective effects of operative cholangiography: a population-based study.
BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggest that laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is associated with an increased risk of intraoperative injury involving the bile ducts, bowel, and vascular structures compared with open cholecystectomy (OC). Population-based studies are required to estimate the magnitude of the increased risk, to determine whether this is changing over time, and to identify ways by which this might be reduced. METHODS: Suspected cases of intraoperative injury associated with cholecystectomy in Western Australia in the period 1988 to 1994 were identified from routinely collected hospital statistical records and lists of persons undergoing postoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. The case records of suspect cases were reviewed to confirm the nature and site of injury. Ordinal logistic regression was used to estimate the risk of injury associated with LC compared with OC after adjusting for confounding factors. RESULTS: After the introduction of LC in 1991, the proportion of all cholecystectomy cases with intraoperative injury increased from 0.67% in 1988-90 to 1.33% in 1993-94. Similar relative increases were observed in bile duct injuries, major bile leaks, and other injuries to bowel or vascular structures. Increases in intraoperative injury were observed in both LC and OC. After adjustment for age, gender, hospital type, severity of disease, intraoperative cholangiography, and calendar period, the odds ratio for intraoperative injury in LC compared with OC was 1.79. Operative cholangiography significantly reduced the risk of injury. CONCLUSION: Operative cholangiography has a protective effect for complications of cholecystectomy. Compared with OC, LC carries a nearly twofold higher risk of major bile, vascular, and bowel complications. Further study is required to determine the extent to which potentially preventable factors contribute to this risk. (+info)
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy in an academic hospital: evaluation of changes in perioperative outcomes.
OBJECTIVE: Evaluate changes in perioperative outcomes over an 82-month period in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy by a single attending surgeon in an academic hospital. METHODS: A retrospective review of 1025 consecutive patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy from September 1992 to February 1997 was compared to the initial 600 patients from May 1990 to August 1992. Statistical analysis included Chi square with Yates correction and Fischer's exact test. RESULTS: Over the 82-month period there were no significant differences in the overall conversion rate to open cholecystectomy (p=0.26), intraoperative complications (p = 0.81), postoperative complications (p = 0.054) or mortality rates (p=0.66). There were 3 (0.5%) bile duct injuries in the initial 600 patients and only 1 (0.1%) in the group of 1025 patients (p=0.065). There was an increase (p<0.001) in laparoscopic cholecystectomies performed for acute cholecystitis and biliary dyskinesia and an increase (p<0.001) in the percentage of cases performed overall and for acute cholecystitis by the surgery residents over the last 54 months. Despite this, the conversion rates to open cholecystectomy in patients with acute cholecystitis decreased (p < 0.001) over the last 54 months. Additionally, more patients (p < 0.001) were discharged on the day of surgery in the most recent group. CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy can be performed safely by surgery residents under the direct supervision of an experienced laparoscopist without significant changes in perioperative outcomes. Despite an increased percentage of cases being performed for acute cholecystitis over the last 54 months, conversion rates to open cholecystectomy and biliary tract injury rates have decreased, and the perioperative morbidity has remained the same. (+info)
Implications of laparoscopic cholecystectomy for surgical residency training.
BACKGROUND: Widespread adoption of minimal access techniques forced a generation of abdominal surgeons to re-learn many standard abdominal procedures. This threatened to reduce the pool of suitable "training" operations for surgical residents. METHODS: Operator grade, duration of operation, acute/elective operation, conversion rate, complications, and postoperative stay were recorded prospectively on all laparoscopic cholecystectomies (LC) since 1992. This data was evaluated to determine how the introduction of LC affected residents' training. RESULTS: The percentage of LCs performed by residents increased progressively to reach 58%. Operating time was longer for trainee surgeons, particularly for acute cases (145+/-50 minutes vs 111+/-54 minutes, p<0.05); however, conversion rate, incidence of complications, and postoperative stay were no different. CONCLUSIONS: LC can be performed by surgical trainees with similar complication rates and outcomes as those of qualified surgeons. Once institutional experience has accumulated, this procedure can be integrated into residency training. (+info)
Investigation of bile ducts before laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
BACKGROUND: Since the advent of laparoscopic cholecystectomy, there has been controversy about the investigation of the bile ducts and the management of common bile duct stones. Routine peroperative cholangiography (POC) in all cases has been recommended. We have adopted a policy of not performing routine POC, and the results of 700 cases are reported. METHODS: Since 1990, all patients have undergone preoperative ultrasound scan. We have performed selective preoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) because of a clinical history of jaundice and/or pancreatitis, abnormal liver function tests and ultrasound evidence of dilated bile ducts (N=78, 11.1%). The remaining 622 patients did not have a routine POC, but selective peroperative cholangiogram (POC) was performed only in 42 patients (6%) because of unsuccessful ERCP or mild alteration in the criteria for the presence of bile duct stones. The remaining 580 patients did not undergo POC. Careful dissection of Calot's triangle was performed in all cases to reduce the risk of bile duct injuries. RESULTS: The overall operative complications, postoperative morbidity and mortality was 1.71%, 2.14% and 0.43%, respectively. Bile duct injuries occurred in two patients (0.26%) and both were recognized during the operation and repaired. There was a single incidence of retained stone in this series of 700 cases (0.14%), which required postoperative ERCP. CONCLUSIONS: This policy of selective preoperative ERCP, and not routine peroperative cholangiogram, is cost effective and not associated with significant incidence of retained stones or bile duct injuries after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. (+info)
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy during pregnancy: three case reports.
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this presentation is to investigate the effects and feasibility of laparoscopic cholecystectomy during pregnancy. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: We present three pregnant patients who underwent a laparoscopic cholecystectomy for biliary colic during the early second and early third trimester of pregnancy. We also reviewed the literature regarding this topic. RESULTS: All three pregnant patients had uneventful hospital courses after their procedures and delivered full-term babies without complications. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy during the first trimester of pregnancy is contraindicated due to the ongoing fetal organogenesis and during the third trimester is not technically feasible due to the large uterine size. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that laparoscopic cholecystectomy during the second and very early third trimester of pregnancy is safe and feasible. (+info)