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(1/344) Hepatic retransplantation in cholestatic liver disease: impact of the interval to retransplantation on survival and resource utilization.

The aim of our study was to quantitatively assess the impact of hepatic retransplantation on patient and graft survival and resource utilization. We studied patients undergoing hepatic retransplantation among 447 transplant recipients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) at 3 transplantation centers. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used for survival analysis. Measures of resource utilization included the duration of hospitalization, length of stay in the intensive care unit, and the duration of transplantation surgery. Forty-six (10.3%) patients received 2 or more grafts during the follow-up period (median, 2.8 years). Patients who underwent retransplantation had a 3.8-fold increase in the risk of death compared with those without retransplantation (P <.01). Retransplantation after an interval of greater than 30 days from the primary graft was associated with a 6.7-fold increase in the risk of death (P <.01). The survival following retransplantations performed 30 days or earlier was similar to primary transplantations. Resource utilization was higher in patients who underwent multiple consecutive transplantations, even after adjustment for the number of grafts during the hospitalization. Among cholestatic liver disease patients, poor survival following hepatic retransplantation is attributed to late retransplantations, namely those performed more than 30 days after the initial transplantation. While efforts must be made to improve the outcome following retransplantation, a more critical evaluation may be warranted for late retransplantation candidates.  (+info)

(2/344) Ileoanal anastomosis with reservoirs: complications and long-term results.

OBJECTIVE: To determine the rate of complications of ileoanal pouch anastomosis, their treatment and their influence on a successful outcome. DESIGN: A computerized database and chart review. SETTING: Three academic tertiary care health centres. PATIENTS: All 239 patients admitted for surgery between 1981 and 1994 with a diagnosis of ulcerative colitis and familial adenomatosis coli. INTERVENTIONS: Sphincter-saving total proctocolectomy and construction of either S-type of J-type ileoanal reservoir. OUTCOME MEASURES: Indications, early and late complications, incidence of pouch excision. RESULTS: Of the 239 patients, 228 (95.4%) were operated on for ulcerative colitis and 11 (4.6%) for familial polyposis coli. One patient in each group was found to have a carcinoma not previously diagnosed. Twenty-eight patients had poor results: in 17 (7.1%) the ileostomy was never closed or was re-established because of pelvic sepsis or complex fistulas, sclerosing cholangitis or severe diarrhea; 11 (4.6%) patients required excision of the pouch because of anal stenosis, perirectal abscess-fistula or rectovaginal fistula. Three patients died--of suicide, and complications of liver transplantation and HIV infection. Thus, 208 patients maintained a functioning pouch. The early complication rate (within 30 days of operation) was 57.7% (138 patients) and the late complication rate was 52.3% (125 patients). Pouchitis alone did not lead to failure or pouch excision. Emptying difficulties in 25 patients with anal stenosis were helped in 2 by resorting to intermittent catheterization. Patients with indeterminate colitis had a higher rate of anorectal septic complications, and all patients having Crohn's disease after pouch construction had complicated courses. CONCLUSIONS: The complication rate associated with ileoanal pouch anastomosis continues to be relatively high despite increasing experience with this technique. Overall, however, a satisfactory outcome was obtained in 87% of patients.  (+info)

(3/344) Expression of CD44 on bile ducts in primary sclerosing cholangitis and primary biliary cirrhosis.

AIM: To examine expression of CD44, a transmembrane glycoprotein involved in lymphocyte homing and activation, in inflammatory liver diseases. METHODS: Formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissues were obtained from normal, uninvolved liver from patients undergoing partial hepatectomy for metastatic carcinoma (9) and transplant hepatectomy specimens from patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (12), primary sclerosing cholangitis (8), autoimmune hepatitis (3), hepatitis C (3), and secondary sclerosing cholangitis (1). Expression of CD44 (using antibodies to three core epitopes), HLA-DR, and lymphocyte phenotypic markers was studied by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: CD44 expression was not detected in either hepatocytes or biliary epithelial cells in normal livers. In sections from all 27 transplant hepatectomy specimens, CD44 was positive in bile duct epithelial cells but not in hepatocytes. The proportion of CD44+ ducts was much higher in biliary disease than in chronic hepatitis. By contrast, expression of HLA-DR was detected in a relatively small percentage of bile ducts. Activated, memory phenotype CD4+ T lymphocytes were increased in the parenchyma of all diseased livers and an infiltrate of activated CD8+ cells within the biliary epithelium was evident in inflammatory biliary disease. CONCLUSIONS: CD44 appears to play an important role in the development of autoimmune biliary disease by promoting lymphoepithelial interactions, whereas HLA-DR may be involved in the subsequent progression of these conditions.  (+info)

(4/344) Riedel's thyroiditis in multifocal fibrosclerosis: CT and MR imaging findings.

Riedel's thyroiditis is a rare disorder of unknown etiology and may be seen isolated or as a part of multifocal fibrosclerosis. It is important to distinguish Riedel's thyroiditis from thyroid carcinoma. Reports about imaging features of Riedel's thyroiditis are limited in the radiologic literature. We describe herein CT and MR imaging features of Riedel's thyroiditis in a case of multifocal fibrosclerosis with previously unreported radiologic observations.  (+info)

(5/344) Identification of Helicobacter pylori and other Helicobacter species by PCR, hybridization, and partial DNA sequencing in human liver samples from patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis or primary biliary cirrhosis.

Helicobacter pylori was identified in human liver tissue by PCR, hybridization, and partial DNA sequencing. Liver biopsies were obtained from patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (n = 12), primary biliary cirrhosis (n = 12), and noncholestatic liver cirrhosis (n = 13) and (as controls) normal livers (n = 10). PCR analyses were carried out using primers for the Helicobacter genus, Helicobacter pylori (the gene encoding a species-specific 26-kDa protein and the 16S rRNA), Helicobacter bilis, Helicobacter pullorum, and Helicobacter hepaticus. Samples from patients with primary biliary cirrhosis and primary sclerosing cholangitis (11 and 9 samples, respectively) were positive by PCR with Helicobacter genus-specific primers. Of these 20 samples, 8 were positive with the 16S rRNA primer and 9 were positive with the 26-kDa protein primer of H. pylori. These nine latter samples were also positive by Southern blot hybridization for the amplified 26-kDa fragment, and four of those were verified to be H. pylori by partial 16S rDNA sequencing. None of the samples reacted with primers for H. bilis, H. pullorum, or H. hepaticus. None of the normal livers had positive results in the Helicobacter genus PCR assay, and only one patient in the noncholestatic liver cirrhosis group, a young boy who at reexamination showed histological features suggesting primary sclerosing cholangitis, had a positive result in the same assay. Helicobacter positivity was thus significantly more common in patients with cholestatic diseases (20 of 24) than in patients with noncholestatic diseases and normal controls (1 of 23) (P = <0.00001). Patients positive for Helicobacter genus had significantly higher values of alkaline phosphatases and prothrombin complex than Helicobacter-negative patients (P = 0.0001 and P = 0.0003, respectively). Among primary sclerosing cholangitis patients, Helicobacter genus PCR positivity was weakly associated with ulcerative colitis (P = 0.05). Significant differences related to blood group or HLA status were not found.  (+info)

(6/344) Plasma antioxidant levels in chronic cholestatic liver diseases.

BACKGROUND: [corrected] A predictable consequence of cholestasis is malabsorption of fat-soluble factors, (vitamins A, D, E, K) and other free radical scavengers, such as carotenoids. It has been suggested that oxygen-derived free radicals may be involved in the pathogenesis of chronic liver damage. AIMS: (i) To evaluate retinol, alpha-tocopherol and carotenoid plasma levels in two groups of patients with chronic cholestatic liver disease (primary biliary cirrhosis and primary sclerosing cholangitis); (ii) to compare the respective plasma levels with those of the general population; (iii) to correlate the plasma levels with disease severity. METHODS: A total of 105 patients with chronic cholestasis were included in the study: 86 with primary biliary cirrhosis (81 female, five male, mean age 55.5 +/- 11 years), 19 with primary sclerosing cholangitis (seven female, 12 male, mean age 35 +/- 11 years; six patients had associated inflammatory bowel disease); 105 sex- and age-matched subjects from the general population in the same geographical area (88 female, 17 male, mean age 51.3.5 +/- 10 years) served as controls. Carotenoids (lutein zeaxanthin, lycopene, beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin), retinol and alpha-tocopherol were assayed by high-pressure liquid chromatography. A food frequency questionnaire was administered to each subject to evaluate the quality and the quantity of dietary compounds. Data were processed by analysis of variance and linear regression analysis, as appropriate. RESULTS: Both primary biliary cirrhosis and primary sclerosing cholangitis patients had significantly lower levels of retinol, alpha-tocopherol, total carotenoids, lutein, zeaxanthin, lycopene, alpha- and beta-carotene than controls (P < 0.0001). Among the cholestatic patients, no significant difference in the concentration of antioxidants was observed between primary biliary cirrhosis and primary sclerosing cholangitis subjects. Anti-oxidant plasma levels were not affected by the severity of the histological stage in primary biliary cirrhosis, but a negative correlation was found between total carotenoids and both alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gammaglutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) (P < 0.013 and P < 0.018, respectively). Within the primary sclerosing cholangitis group, no correlation was found between total carotenoids and cholestatic enzymes. Nutritional intake in cholestatic patients was comparable to controls, including fruit and vegetable intake. CONCLUSIONS: Although no clinical sign of deficiency is evident, plasma levels of antioxidants are low in cholestatic patients even in early stages of the disease. This is probably due to malabsorption of fat-soluble vitamins, as well as other mechanisms of hepatic release, suggesting the need for dietary supplementation.  (+info)

(7/344) Autoantibodies against the specific epitope of human tropomyosin(s) detected by a peptide based enzyme immunoassay in sera of patients with ulcerative colitis show antibody dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity against HLA-DPw9 transfected L cells.

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Recent studies suggest that tropomyosin (TM) may act as a putative autoantigen in ulcerative colitis (UC). Recently, we identified, by computer homology analysis, a specific peptide (HIAEDADRK) in human TM that can bind to HLA-DPw9. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of autoantibodies against this peptide in UC. METHODS: Antibodies were measured by ELISA with a synthetic peptide in 20 healthy volunteers, 48 patients with UC, 26 with Crohn's disease (CD), eight with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), and six with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). The functional significance of antibodies was investigated by antibody dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) against DPw9 transfected L cells using a standard (51)Cr release assay. RESULTS: Optical density values (mean (SD)) of sera from patients with UC (1.40 (0. 52)) and PSC (1.65 (0.12)) were significantly higher than those from healthy volunteers (0.32 (0.28)) (p<0.05), CD (0.50 (0.34)) (p<0.05) and PBC (0.14 (0.09)) (p<0.05). Values in UC decreased with clinical improvement. The ADCC activity of UC sera correlated well with antibody titre against this synthetic peptide. CONCLUSIONS: Anti-TM antibody was detected in UC sera by a specific peptide based ELISA with high reproducibility. This peptide may be an antigenic epitope of TM involved in the immunopathogenesis of UC and, perhaps, PSC.  (+info)

(8/344) Predicting clinical and economic outcomes after liver transplantation using the Mayo primary sclerosing cholangitis model and Child-Pugh score. National Institutes of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Liver Transplantation Database Group.

Issues in the selection and timing of liver transplantation for primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) remain controversial. Although the Child-Pugh classification (CP) score and Mayo PSC model have similar abilities to estimate pretransplantation survival, a comparison of these 2 scores in predicting survival after liver transplantation has not been conducted. The aim of this study is to compare the Mayo PSC model and CP score in predicting patient survival and related economic outcomes after liver transplantation. Data from 128 patients with PSC, identified from the NIDDK database, were used to calculate patient-specific Mayo PSC and CP scores before transplantation. Levels reflecting a poor outcome were defined a priori. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and regression methods (Cox proportional hazards and linear regression models) were used to assess the relationship between these 2 scores and 5 post liver transplantation outcome measures. CP score was found to be a significantly (P <.05) better predictor of death 4 months or less after liver transplantation than: (a) length of hospital stay >21 days (or death before discharge) and (b) resource utilization >200,000 units (measured by area under the ROC curve). The Cox model identified statistically significant (P <.05) associations between CP score and each outcome after adjusting for the Mayo PSC risk score. Similar results were not observed for the Mayo PSC model when adjusted for CP score. Among patients with PSC undergoing liver transplantation, CP score was a better overall predictor of both survival and economic resource utilization compared with the Mayo PSC model.  (+info)