Microbiological degradation of bile acids. The preparation of some hypothetical metabolites involved in cholic acid degradation. (17/18)

1. To identify the intermediates involved in the degradation of cholic acid, the further degradation of (4R)-4-[4alpha-(2-carboxyethyl)-3aalpha-hexahydro-7abeta-methyl-5-oxoindan-1beta- yl]valeric acid (IVa) by Arthrobacter simplex was attempted. The organism could not utilize this acid but some hypothetical intermediate metabolities of compound (IVa) were prepared for later use as reference compounds. 2. The nor homologue (IIIa) and the dinor homologue (IIIb) of compound (IVa) were prepared by exposure of 3-oxo-24-nor-5beta-cholan-23-oic acid (I) and (20S)-3beta-hydroxy-5-pregnene-20-carboxylic acid (II) to A. simplex respectively. These compounds correspond to the respective metabolites produced by the shortening of the valeric acid side chain of compound (IVa) in a manner analogous to the conventional fatty acid alpha- and beta-oxidation mechanisms. Their structures were confirmed by partial synthesis. 3. The following authentic samples of reduction products of the oxodicarboxylic acids (IIIa), (IIIb) and (IVa) were also synthesized as hypothetical metabolities: (4R)-4-[3aalpha-hexahydro-5alpha-hydroxy-4alpha-(3-hydroxypropyl)-7abeta-methylin dan-1beta-yl]valeric acid (Vb) and its nor homologue (VIIa) and dinor homologue (IXa);(4R)-4-[3Aaalpha-hexahydro-5alpha-hydroxy-4alpha-(3-hydroxypropyl)-7abeta-m ethylindan-1beta-yl]-pentan-1-ol (Vc); and their respective 5beta epimers (Ve), (VIIc), (IXc) and (Vf). 4. In connexion with the non-utilization of compound (IVa) by A. simplex, the possibility that not all the metabolites formed from cholic acid by a certain micro-organism can be utilized by the same organism is considered.  (+info)

Oxidation of cholesterol and cholesterol analogues by mitochondrial preparations of steroid-hormone-producing tissue. (18/18)

The rate of oxidation of cholesterol and its analogues to pregnenolone (3beta-hydroxypregn-5-en-20-one) by various mitochondrial preparations was measured. Sterols with the cholest-5-en-3beta-ol ring system and saturated side chains of different lengths were converted into pregnenolone rat rates similar to that of cholesterol. This marked lack of mitochondrial specificity towards the steroid side chains is in direct contrast with the rat liver microsomal cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase, which has a high specificity for the side chain. Steroids that retain the ring system, but contain hydroxyl groups at various points in the side chain, are converted into pregnenolone at rates three to eight times higher than in cholesterol. The results are discussed with reference to current ideas on the mechanism of the side-chain cleavage of cholesterol. The results are discussed with reference to current ideas on the mechanism of the side-chain cleavage of cholesterol.  (+info)