Post-translational inhibition of cytochrome P-450 2E1 expression by chlomethiazole in Fao hepatoma cells.
Chlomethiazole (CMZ) is a sedative and anticonvulsant drug that has been shown to be an efficient transcriptional inhibitor of expression of rat hepatic ethanol-inducible cytochrome P-450 2E1 (CYP2E1). Recent results have shown that human CYP2E1 expression in vivo is almost completely inhibited in control subjects and in alcoholic patients treated with CMZ. In the present investigation, we evaluated the mode of action of CMZ on CYP2E1 expression in Fao rat hepatoma cells. Transcriptional activity of the CYP2E1 gene was monitored using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction-based quantification of CYP2E1 heterologous nuclear RNA (hnRNA) against a mimic DNA standard, mRNA was detected by Northern blotting, enzyme protein was detected by Western blotting, and CYP2E1-dependent catalytic activity was detected by assay of chlorzoxazone-6-hydroxylation. Six hours after CMZ treatment, the levels of both CYP2E1 protein and catalytic activity were concomitantly reduced at an IC50 value of about 5 microM. Ethanol treatment of the cells caused a 2-fold induction of CYP2E1 protein levels, which was inhibited by CMZ. Change of medium unexpectedly caused an increase in CYP2E1 gene transcription 4 h later, as monitored by quantitative determination of CYP2E1 hnRNA. However, CMZ failed to influence the expression of CYP2E1 hnRNA or mRNA both constitutively and after medium change, indicating no effect on gene transcription or mRNA synthesis/stability. Cycloheximide treatment of the cells did not abolish the inhibitory action of CMZ, further indicating an action at the post-translational level; in addition, CMZ inhibited CYP2E1 expression in V79 cells with stably expressed CYP2E1 under the control of the SV40 promoter. The data indicate that the CYP2E1 gene is transcriptionally activated in response to medium change and that CMZ, apart from a transcriptional inhibitor of CYP2E1 expression, acts in addition as an efficient high-affinity post-translational inhibitor of CYP2E1, probably due to an allosteric destabilization of the enzyme. This indicates a very rapid and effective CMZ-mediated inhibition of CYP2E1 in vivo. (+info)
Toxicokinetic interactions between orally ingested chlorzoxazone and inhaled acetone or toluene in male volunteers.
The aim of this study was to examine if the drug chlorzoxazone has any influence on the toxicokinetics of acetone and toluene. Chlorzoxazone is mainly metabolized by the same enzyme (Cytochrome P450 2E1) as ethanol and many other organic solvents. Ten male volunteers were exposed to solvent vapor (2 h, 50 watt) in an exposure chamber. Each subject was exposed to acetone only (250 ppm), acetone + chlorzoxazone, toluene (50 ppm) only, toluene + chlorzoxazone, and chlorzoxazone only. Chlorzoxazone (500 mg) was taken as two tablets 1 h prior to solvent exposure. Samples of blood, urine and exhaled air were collected before, during and until 20 h post exposure. The samples were analyzed by head-space gas chromatography (acetone and toluene) and high-performance liquid chromatography (chlorzoxazone, 6-hydroxychlorzoxazone and hippuric acid). The time-concentration curves of acetone and toluene in blood were fitted to one- and four-compartment toxicokinetic models, respectively. Intake of chlorzoxazone was associated with slight but significant increases in the area under the blood concentration-time curve (AUC) and steady state concentration of acetone in blood, along with non significant tendencies to an increased half time in blood and an increased AUC in urine. Except for a delayed excretion of hippuric acid in urine, no effects on the toluene toxicokinetics were seen after chlorzoxazone treatment. Small increases in chlorzoxazone plasma levels were seen after exposure compared to chlorzoxazone alone. These interactions, although statistically significant, seem to be small compared to the interindividual variability on metabolism and toxicokinetics. (+info)
Genetic and dietary predictors of CYP2E1 activity: a phenotyping study in Hawaii Japanese using chlorzoxazone.
Cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1) is considered to play an important role in the metabolic activation of procarcinogens such as N-nitrosoamines and low molecular weight organic compounds. An RsaI polymorphism is present in the 5'-flanking region of the CYP2E1 gene, which could possibly affect its transcription. However, the relationship between genotype and the phenotypic catalytic activity of the enzyme has not been defined. Also, the effects in humans of specific dietary factors, other than ethanol, which have been shown in animal and in vitro studies to modulate CYP2E1 activity, are unknown. Accordingly, the CYP2E1-mediated metabolism of chlorzoxazone to its 6-hydroxy metabolite was investigated in 50 healthy Japanese of both sexes in Hawaii. The oral clearance of the in vivo probe, the trait measure of CYP2E1 activity, was smaller than that reported in European-Americans. Significantly, after adjustment for age and sex, the oral clearance of chlorzoxazone decreased with the number of variant c2 alleles, and its mean in the c2/c2 genotype (147 ml/min) was statistically lower (P < or = 0.05) than that for either the homozygous wild-type (238 ml/min) or the heterozygote (201 ml/min) genotypes. Stepwise multiple regression analysis indicated that body weight was a major contributor to the interindividual variability in the oral clearance of chlorzoxazone, accounting for 43% of the variance. Consumption of lettuce, broccoli, and black tea explained additional components of the variability (7, 5, and 6%, respectively), as did medication use (3%), age (4%), and CYP2E1 genotype (5%). Overall, 73% of the variance could be accounted for by these variables. Body weight, lettuce, and use of medications were associated with increased CYP2E1 activity, and the other covariates were associated with reduced enzyme function. Because of the role that CYP2E1 plays in procarcinogen activation, especially of N-nitrosamines involved in lung cancer, the identified factors may account in part for observed differences in individual susceptibility to disease and may also have implications for cancer prevention. (+info)
Effect of the acute-phase response on the pharmacokinetics of chlorzoxazone and cytochrome P-450 2E1 in vitro activity in rats.
The acute-phase response is known to produce alterations in hepatic cytochrome P-450 (CYP) expression. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a well known inducer of acute-phase response decreases hepatic CYP2E1 in vitro activity in rats. This study was designed to determine if LPS administration produced alterations in the pharmacokinetics of chlorzoxazone (CZN), a marker for CYP2E1 expression. Sprague-Dawley rats were administered a single i.p. injection of LPS (5 mg/kg) or saline control approximately 24 h before a single i.v. bolus dose of CZN (15 mg/kg). Serial blood samples were collected over a 120-min period to quantitate CZN plasma concentrations and protein binding. In addition, livers were removed and processed for evaluating in vitro CYP2E1 protein concentrations and activity. Systemic clearance decreased by 35% in LPS-treated rats, whereas half-life and steady-state volume of distribution increased by 167 and 66%, respectively. The plasma free-fraction of CZN increased 2-fold after LPS treatment. The CZN intrinsic clearance decreased in LPS rats by 71% compared with control values. The CYP2E1 liver microsomal activity decreased between 55 and 75% along with a 41% decrease in CYP2E1 protein concentration. The CZN intrinsic clearance was significantly correlated with both the CZN and p-nitrophenol liver microsomal activity (r = 0.97 and r = 0.91, respectively). This study demonstrated that LPS administration produced expected reductions in the in vivo intrinsic clearance of CZN, and these changes were highly correlated with in vitro activity studies. In addition, LPS produced significant increases in the steady-state volume of distribution of CZN secondary to reductions in its plasma protein binding. (+info)
Duration of cytochrome P-450 2E1 (CYP2E1) inhibition and estimation of functional CYP2E1 enzyme half-life after single-dose disulfiram administration in humans.
Disulfiram (DSF) is a mechanism-based inhibitor of cytochrome P-450 2E1 (CYP2E1), resulting in loss of CYP2E1 protein and activity, which may be useful in preventing CYP2E1-mediated xenobiotic toxicity. The duration of inhibition after a single DSF dose is, however, unknown. The purpose of this investigation was to determine this duration, and CYP2E1 formation and degradation rates, in humans. Oral chlorzoxazone (CLZ) was used as the selective in vivo probe for CYP2E1. Healthy subjects received CLZ to determine baseline CYP2E1 activity (CLZ plasma clearance and 6-hydroxychlorzoxazone fractional metabolic clearance). One week later, DSF (500 mg orally) was administered at bedtime, and CLZ administered the following morning and 3, 6, 8, 10, and 13 days after DSF. A terminal DSF metabolite, 2-thiothiazolidine-4 carboxylic acid, was also measured in each 24-h urine sample. The mean CLZ clearance and 6-hydroxychlorzoxazone fractional metabolic clearance on the first day declined to 10.2 and 5.5% of baseline values, indicating rapid and profound CYP2E1 inhibition. CYP2E1 activity returned to half that of control on day 3, and to baseline values on day 8. Assuming zero-order synthesis and first-order degradation, the in vivo CYP2E1 synthesis rate and degradation half-life was estimated to be 11 +/- 5 nmol/h and 50 +/- 19 h, respectively. Significant amounts of 2-thiothiazolidine-4 carboxylic acid were present only on day 1, suggesting that the return of in vivo CYP2E1 activity was not caused by inhibitor washout, but by enzyme resynthesis. Results regarding CYP2E1 disposition may be useful for modeling the effects of CYP2E1 inducers and inhibitors. For prevention of CYP2E1-mediated bioactivation, depending on protoxicant disposition, a second DSF dose might be necessary to completely prevent toxicity. (+info)
Prediction of human liver microsomal oxidations of 7-ethoxycoumarin and chlorzoxazone with kinetic parameters of recombinant cytochrome P-450 enzymes.
Different roles of individual forms of human cytochrome P-450 (CYP) in the oxidation of 7-ethoxycoumarin and chlorzoxazone were investigated in liver microsomes of different human samples, and the microsomal activities thus obtained were predicted with kinetic parameters obtained from cDNA-derived recombinant CYP enzymes in microsomes of Trichoplusia ni cells. Of 14 forms of recombinant CYP examined, CYP1A1 had the highest activities (V(max)/K(m) ratio) in catalyzing 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylation followed by CYP1A2, 2E1, 2A6, and 2B6, although CYP1A1 has been shown to be an extrahepatic enzyme. With these kinetic parameters (excluding CYP1A1) we found that CYP1A2 and 2E1 were the major enzymes catalyzing 7-ethoxycoumarin; the contributions of these two forms were dependent on the contents of these CYPs in liver microsomes of different humans. Similarly, chlorzoxazone 6-hydroxylation activities of liver microsomes were predicted with kinetic parameters of recombinant human CYP enzymes and it was found that CYP3A4 as well as CYP1A2 and 2E1 were involved in chlorzoxazone hydroxylation, depending on the contents of these CYP forms in the livers. Recombinant CYP2A6 and 2B6 and CYP2D6 had considerable roles (V(max)/K(m) ratio) for 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylation and chlorzoxazone 6-hydroxylation, respectively; however, these CYP forms had relatively minor roles in the reactions, probably due to low expression in human livers. These results support the view that the roles of individual CYP enzymes in the oxidation of xenobiotic chemicals in human liver microsomes could be predicted by kinetic parameters of individual CYP enzymes and by the levels of each of the CYP enzymes in liver microsomes of human samples. (+info)
Stimulation of Cl(-) secretion by chlorzoxazone.
We previously demonstrated that 1-ethyl-2-benzimidazolone (1-EBIO) directly activates basolateral membrane calcium-activated K(+) channels (K(Ca)), thereby stimulating Cl(-) secretion across several epithelia. In our pursuit to identify potent modulators of Cl(-) secretion that may be useful to overcome the Cl(-) secretory defect in cystic fibrosis (CF), we have identified chlorzoxazone [5-chloro-2(3H)-benzoxazolone], a clinically used centrally acting muscle relaxant, as a stimulator of Cl(-) secretion in several epithelial cell types, including T84, Calu-3, and human bronchial epithelium. The Cl(-) secretory response induced by chlorzoxazone was blocked by charybdotoxin (CTX), a known blocker of K(Ca). In nystatin-permeabilized monolayers, chlorzoxazone stimulated a basolateral membrane I(K), which was inhibited by CTX and also stimulated an apical I(Cl) that was inhibited by glibenclamide, indicating that the G(Cl) responsible for this I(Cl) may be cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). In membrane vesicles prepared from T84 cells, chlorzoxazone stimulated (86)Rb(+) uptake in a CTX-sensitive manner. In excised, inside-out patches, chlorzoxazone activated an inwardly-rectifying K(+) channel, which was inhibited by CTX. 6-Hydroxychlorzoxazone, the major metabolite of chlorzoxazone, did not activate K(Ca), whereas zoxazolamine (2-amino-5-chlorzoxazole) showed a similar response profile as chlorzoxazone. In normal human nasal epithelium, chlorzoxazone elicited hyperpolarization of the potential difference that was similar in magnitude to isoproterenol. However, in the nasal epithelium of CF patients with the DeltaF508 mutation of CFTR, there was no detectable Cl(-) secretory response to chlorzoxazone. These studies demonstrate that chlorzoxazone stimulates transepithelial Cl(-) secretion in normal airway epithelium in vitro and in vivo, and suggest that stimulation requires functional CFTR in the epithelia. (+info)
Pharmacological activation of cloned intermediate- and small-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels.
We previously characterized 1-ethyl-2-benzimidazolinone (1-EBIO), as well as the clinically useful benzoxazoles, chlorzoxazone (CZ), and zoxazolamine (ZOX), as pharmacological activators of the intermediate-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel, hIK1. The mechanism of activation of hIK1, as well as the highly homologous small-conductance, Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) channel, rSK2, was determined following heterologous expression in Xenopus oocytes using two-electrode voltage clamp (TEVC) and excised, inside-out patch-clamp techniques. 1-EBIO, CZ, and ZOX activated both hIK1 and rSK2 in TEVC and excised inside-out patch-clamp experiments. In excised, inside-out patches, 1-EBIO and CZ induced a concentration-dependent activation of hIK1, with half-maximal (K(1/2)) values of 84 microM and 98 microM, respectively. Similarly, CZ activated rSK2 with a K(1/2) of 87 microM. In the absence of CZ, the Ca(2+)-dependent activation of hIK1 was best fit with a K(1/2) of 700 nM and a Hill coefficient (n) of 2.0. rSK2 was activated by Ca(2+) with a K(1/2) of 700 nM and an n of 2.5. Addition of CZ had no effect on either the K(1/2) or n for Ca(2+)-dependent activation of either hIK1 or rSK2. Rather, CZ increased channel activity at all Ca(2+) concentrations (V(max)). Event-duration analysis revealed hIK1 was minimally described by two open and three closed times. Activation by 1-EBIO had no effect on tau(o1), tau(o2), or tau(c1), whereas tau(c2) and tau(c3) were reduced from 9.0 and 92.6 ms to 5.0 and 44.1 ms, respectively. In conclusion, we define 1-EBIO, CZ, and ZOX as the first known activators of hIK1 and rSK2. Openers of IK and SK channels may be therapeutically beneficial in cystic fibrosis and vascular diseases. (+info)