Nonbehavioral selection for pawns, mutants of Paramecium aurelia with decreased excitability.
The reversal response in Paramecium aurelia is mediated by calcium which carries the inward current during excitation. Electrophysiological studies indicate that strontium and barium can also carry the inward current. Exposure to high concentrations of barium rapidly paralyzes and later kills wild-type paramecia. Following mutagenesis with nitrosoguanidine, seven mutants which continued to swim in the ;high-barium' solution were selected. All of the mutants show decreased reversal behavior, with phenotypes ranging from extremely non-reversing (;extreme' pawns) to nearly wild-type reversal behavior (;partial' pawns). The mutations fall into three complementation groups, identical to the pwA, pwB, and pwC genes of Kunget al. (1975). All of the pwA and pwB mutants withstand longer exposure to barium, the pwB mutants surviving longer than the pwA mutants. Among mutants of each gene, survival is correlated with loss of reversal behavior. Double mutants (A-B, A-C, B-C), identified in the exautogamous progeny of crosses between ;partial' mutants, exhibited a more extreme non-reversing phenotype than either of their single-mutant (;partial' pawn) parents.---Inability to reverse could be expected from an alteration in the calcium-activated reversal mechanism or in excitation. A normal calcium-activated structure was demonstrated in all pawns by chlorpromazine treatment. In a separate report (Schein, Bennett and Katz 1976) the results of electrophysiological investigations directly demonstrate decreased excitability in all of the mutants, a decrease due to an altered calcium activation. The studies of the genetics, the survival in barium and the electro-physiology of the pawns demonstrate that the pwA and pwB genes have different effects on calcium activation. (+info)
Effects of promazine, chlorpromazine, d-amphetamine, and pentobarbital on treadle pressing by pigeons under a signalled shock-postponement schedule.
The effects of promazine on treadle pressing to postpone the presentation of electric shock were studied in three pigeons. The effects of chlorpromazine, d-amphetamine, and pentobarbital were studied in two of these pigeons. Each treadle press postponed electric shock for 20 sec and presentation of a preshock stimulus for 14 sec. Selected doses of both promazine and chlorpromazine increased the rates of treadle pressing in all birds. The response-rate increases produced by promazine and chlorpromazine were due to increased conditional probabilities of treadle pressing both before and during the preshock stimulus. d-Amphetamine (1 and 3 mg/kg) slightly increased responding in one of the birds, but not to the extent that promazine or chlorpromazine did. In the other bird, the 10 mg/kg dose of d-amphetamine increased shock rate but did not change response rate. Some doses of d-amphetamine increased the conditional probabilities of responding both in the absence of the preshock signal and during the preshock signal in both birds. Pentobarbital only decreased response rates and increased shock rates. (+info)
Effect of psychotropic drugs on caudate spindle in cats.
To ascertain whether neuroleptics act on the caudate nucleus itself, the effects of these compounds as well as other centrally acting drugs were examined in relation to caudate spindle and EEG arousal responses (sciatic nerve stimulation) in gallamine-immobilized cats. Haloperidol and chlorpromazine enhanced the caudate spindle at a dose which had no effect on the EEG arousal response. On the other hand, clozapine and a higher dose of chlorpromazine enhanced the caudate spindle, but depressed the arousal response. High frequency stimulation of the sciatic nerve suppressed the caudate spindle. Pentobarbital, biperiden and diazepam, while depressing the arousal response, caused an enhancement of the caudate spindle. Imipramine at a low dose had no effect on either response, whereas at a high dose this drug enhanced the caudate spindle with concomitant depression of the arousal response. From these results, it may be concluded that the enhancing action on the caudate spindle induced by haloperidol and a low dose of chlorpromazine is due to an increase in susceptibility of the caudate nucleus itself. In addition, it is suggested that depression of the activating system is involved in an appearance of the caudate spindle. (+info)
Mechanisms involved in the metabotropic glutamate receptor-enhancement of NMDA-mediated motoneurone responses in frog spinal cord.
1. The metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) agonist trans-(+/-)-1-amino-1,3-cyclopentanedicarboxylic acid (trans-ACPD) (10-100 microM) depolarized isolated frog spinal cord motoneurones, a process sensitive to kynurenate (1.0 mM) and tetrodotoxin (TTX) (0.783 microM). 2. In the presence of NMDA open channel blockers [Mg2+; (+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5,10-imine hydrogen maleate (MK801); 3,5-dimethyl-1-adamantanamine hydrochloride (memantine)] and TTX, trans-ACPD significantly potentiated NMDA-induced motoneurone depolarizations, but not alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-proprionate (AMPA)- or kainate-induced depolarizations. 3. NMDA potentiation was blocked by (RS)-alpha-methyl-4-carboxyphenylglycine (MCPG) (240 microM), but not by alpha-methyl-(2S,3S,4S)-alpha-(carboxycyclopropyl)-glycine (MCCG) (290 microM) or by alpha-methyl-(S)-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate (L-MAP4) (250 microM), and was mimicked by 3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG) (30 microM), but not by L(+)-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate (L-AP4) (100 microM). Therefore, trans-ACPD's facilitatory effects appear to involve group I mGluRs. 4. Potentiation was prevented by the G-protein decoupling agent pertussis toxin (3-6 ng ml(-1), 36 h preincubation). The protein kinase C inhibitors staurosporine (2.0 microM) and N-(2-aminoethyl)-5-isoquinolinesulphonamide HCI (H9) (77 microM) did not significantly reduce enhanced NMDA responses. Protein kinase C activation with phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate (5.0 microM) had no effect. 5. Intracellular Ca2+ depletion with thapsigargin (0.1 microM) (which inhibits Ca2+/ATPase), 1,2-bis(O-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetracetic acid acetyl methyl ester (BAPTA-AM) (50 microM) (which buffers elevations of [Ca2+]i), and bathing spinal cords in nominally Ca2+-free medium all reduced trans-ACPD's effects. 6. The calmodulin antagonists N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalenesulphonamide (W7) (100 microM) and chlorpromazine (100 microM) diminished the potentiation. 7. In summary, group I mGluRs selectively facilitate NMDA-depolarization of frog motoneurones via a G-protein, a rise in [Ca2+]i from the presumed generation of phosphoinositides, binding of Ca2+ to calmodulin, and lessening of the Mg2+-produced channel block of the NMDA receptor. (+info)
Antagonistic effects of trifluoperazine, imipramine, and chlorpromazine against acetylcholine-induced contractions in isolated rat uterus.
AIM: To examine the effects and affinity of some phenothizines (trifluoperazine, Tri and chlorpromazine, Chl) and antidepressant (imipramine, Imi) drugs on acetylcholine (ACh)-induced uterine contraction. METHODS: Isotonic contractions of rat uterine strips were recorded. ACh was administrated to induce maximal contraction before exchange of nutrient solution. ACh was added 5 min after the testing drugs. The nutrient solution was exchanged 4 times after each agonist (ACh or other agents) to produce maximal contraction. RESULTS: Atropine (Atr, 0.029-2.9 mumol.L-1), 4-DAMP (3.6-360 nmol.L-1), pirenzepine (Pir, 0.23-23.5 mumol.L-1), and AF-DX 116 (0.7-35.6 mumol.L-1) competitively antagonized the muscular uterine concentration induced by ACh (0.068-36068 mumol.L-1). The Schild plot was linear (r = 1.00). The pKB and slopes values (95% confidence limits) were 9.28 +/- 0.12 and 1.00 +/- 0.10 to Atr, 9.06 +/- 0.10 and 1.10 +/- 0.08 to 4-DAMP, 7.03 +/- 0.15 and 0.99 +/- 0.12 to Pir, and 5.60 +/- 0.08 and 1.00 +/- 0.19 to AF-DX 116. Tri 0.01-2 mumol.L-1 (pKB = 8.39 +/- 0.04) and Imi 94-940 nmol.L-1 (pKB = 7.21 +/- 0.10) produced also a competitive antagonism of the muscular uterine contraction induced by ACh (r = 1.00), but the slope was only 0.60 +/- 0.03 to Tri or 0.83 +/- 0.16 to Imi. Chl 2.8-5.6 mumol.L-1 produced a weak antagonism on amplitude of muscular contraction induced by the cholinomimetic. CONCLUSION: The muscarinic receptors on uterus behaved as M3 subtype. Tri and Imi, but not Chl, were competitive antagonist of muscarinic receptors of uterus. Imi behaved a simple competitive antagonist at a single site on myometrium, but Tri was not a simple competitive agent at a single site. (+info)
Chlorpromazine inhibits miniature GABAergic currents by reducing the binding and by increasing the unbinding rate of GABAA receptors.
Recent studies have emphasized that nonequilibrium conditions of postsynaptic GABAA receptor (GABAAR) activation is a key factor in shaping the time course of IPSCs (Puia et al., 1994; Jones and Westbrook, 1995). Such nonequilibrium, resulting from extremely fast agonist time course, may affect the interaction between pharmacological agents and postsynaptic GABAARs. In the present study we found that chlorpromazine (CPZ), a widely used antipsychotic drug known to interfere with several ligand and voltage-gated channels, reduces the amplitude and accelerates the decay of miniature IPSCs (mIPSCs). A good qualitative reproduction of the effects of CPZ on mIPSCs was obtained when mIPSCs were mimicked by responses to ultrafast GABA applications to excised patches. Our experimental data and model simulations indicate that CPZ affects mIPSCs by decreasing the binding (kon) and by increasing the unbinding (koff) rates of GABAARs. Because of reduction of kon by CPZ, the binding reaction becomes rate-limiting, and agonist exposure of GABAARs during mIPSC is too short to activate the receptors to the same extent as in control conditions. The increase in unbinding rate is implicated as the mechanism underlying the acceleration of mIPSC decaying phase. The effect of CPZ on GABAAR binding rate, resulting in slower onset of GABA-evoked currents, provides a tool to estimate the speed of synaptic clearance of GABA. Moreover, the onset kinetics of recorded responses allowed the estimate the peak synaptic GABA concentration. (+info)
Raclopride and chlorpromazine, but not clozapine, increase muscle rigidity in the rat: relationship with D2 dopamine receptor occupancy.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between effects on muscle tone and D2 receptor occupancy of two typical antipsychotic drugs, raclopride and chlorpromazine, and the atypical drug, clozapine. Increased muscle tone (i.e., muscle rigidity), was measured as increases in tonic electromyographic (EMG) activity of the antagonistic muscles of the rat hind limb. D2 dopamine receptor occupancy was assessed in the striatum and substantia nigra, areas involved in the regulation of muscle tone. Raclopride and chlorpromazine produced dose-dependent increases in EMG activity associated with D2 occupancy of 68%-80% in the striatum and 67%-76% in the nigra. No significant increases in EMG were observed with clozapine which showed low D2 occupancy. The results are consistent with those from human studies showing extrapyramidal side effects were associated with striatal D2 occupancy of > 70%. (+info)
A specific point mutant at position 1 of the influenza hemagglutinin fusion peptide displays a hemifusion phenotype.
We showed previously that substitution of the first residue of the influenza hemagglutinin (HA) fusion peptide Gly1 with Glu abolishes fusion activity. In the present study we asked whether this striking phenotype was due to the charge or side-chain volume of the substituted Glu. To do this we generated and characterized six mutants with substitutions at position 1: Gly1 to Ala, Ser, Val, Glu, Gln, or Lys. We found the following. All mutants were expressed at the cell surface, could be cleaved from the precursor (HA0) to the fusion permissive form (HA1-S-S-HA2), bound antibodies against the major antigenic site, bound red blood cells, and changed conformation at low pH. Only Gly, Ala, and Ser supported lipid mixing during fusion with red blood cells. Only Gly and Ala supported content mixing. Ser HA, therefore, displayed a hemifusion phenotype. The hemifusion phenotype of Ser HA was confirmed by electrophysiological studies. Our findings indicate that the first residue of the HA fusion peptide must be small (e.g., Gly, Ala, or Ser) to promote lipid mixing and must be small and apolar (e.g., Gly or Ala) to support both lipid and content mixing. The finding that Val HA displays no fusion activity underscores the idea that hydrophobicity is not the sole factor dictating fusion peptide function. The surprising finding that Ser HA displays hemifusion suggests that the HA ectodomain functions not only in the first stage of fusion, lipid mixing, but also, either directly or indirectly, in the second stage of fusion, content mixing. (+info)