(1/9) High frequency of codon 61 K-ras A-->T transversions in lung and Harderian gland neoplasms of B6C3F1 mice exposed to chloroprene (2-chloro-1,3-butadiene) for 2 years, and comparisons with the structurally related chemicals isoprene and 1,3-butadiene.
Chloroprene is the 2-chloro analog of 1,3-butadiene, a potent carcinogen in laboratory animals. Following 2 years of inhalation exposure to 12.8, 32 or 80 p.p.m. chloroprene, increased incidences of lung and Harderian gland (HG) neoplasms were observed in B6C3F1 mice at all exposure concentrations. The present study was designed to characterize genetic alterations in the K- and H-ras proto-oncogenes in chloroprene-induced lung and HG neoplasms. K-ras mutations were detected in 80% of chloroprene-induced lung neoplasms (37/46) compared with only 30% in spontaneous lung neoplasms (25/82). Both K- and H-ras codon 61 A-->T transversions were identified in 100% of HG neoplasms (27/27) compared with a frequency of 56% (15/27) in spontaneous HG neoplasms. The predominant mutation in chloroprene-induced lung and HG neoplasms was an A-->T transversion at K-ras codon 61. This mutation has not been detected in spontaneous lung tumors of B6C3F1 mice and was identified in only 7% of spontaneous HG neoplasms. In lung neoplasms, greater percentages (80 and 71%) of A-->T transversions were observed at the lower exposures (12.8 and 32 p.p.m.), respectively, compared with 18% at the high exposure. In HG neoplasms, the percentage of A-->T transversions was the same at all exposure concentrations. The chloroprene-induced ras mutation spectra was similar to that seen with isoprene, where the predominant base change was an A-->T transversion at K-ras codon 61. This differed from 1,3-butadiene, where K-ras codon 13 G-->C transitions and H-ras codon 61 A-->G transitions were the predominant mutations. The major finding of K-ras A-->T transversions in lung and Harderian gland neoplasms suggests that this mutation may be important for tumor induction by this class of carcinogens. (+info)
(2/9) Multiple organ carcinogenicity of inhaled chloroprene (2-chloro-1,3-butadiene) in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice and comparison of dose-response with 1,3-butadiene in mice.
Chloroprene (2-chloro-1,3-butadiene) is a high production chemical used almost exclusively in the production of polychloroprene (neoprene) elastomer. Because of its structural similarity to 1,3-butadiene, a trans-species carcinogen, inhalation studies were performed with chloroprene to evaluate its carcinogenic potential in rats and mice. Groups of 50 male and female F344/N rats and 50 male and female B6C3F1 mice were exposed to 0, 12.8, 32 or 80 p.p.m. chloroprene (6 h/day, 5 days/week) for 2 years. Under these conditions, chloroprene was carcinogenic to the oral cavity, thyroid gland, lung, kidney and mammary gland of rats, and to the lung, circulatory system (hemangiomas and hemangiosarcomas), Harderian gland, kidney, forestomach, liver, mammary gland, skin, mesentery and Zymbal's gland of mice. Survival adjusted tumor rates in mice were fit to a Weibull model for estimation of the shape of the dose-response curves, estimation of ED10 values (the estimated exposure concentration associated with an increased cancer risk of 10%) and comparison of these parameters with those for 1,3-butadiene. Butadiene has been identified as a potent carcinogen in mice and has been associated with increased risk of lymphatic and hematopoietic cancer in exposed workers. Shape parameter values for most of the neoplastic effects of chloroprene and 1,3-butadiene were consistent with linear or supralinear responses in the area near the lowest tested exposures. The most potent carcinogenic effect of 1,3-butadiene was the induction of lung neoplasms in female mice, which had an ED10 value of 0.3 p.p.m. Since the ED10 value for that same response in chloroprene exposed mice was also 0.3 p.p.m., we conclude that the carcinogenic potency of chloroprene in mice is similar to that of 1,3-butadiene. Cancer potency of chloroprene is greater in the mouse lung than in the rat lung, but greater in the rat kidney than in the mouse kidney and nearly equivalent in the mammary gland of each species. (+info)
(3/9) Kinetic modeling of beta-chloroprene metabolism: II. The application of physiologically based modeling for cancer dose response analysis.
beta-Chloroprene (2-chloro-1,3-butadiene; CD), which is used in the synthesis of polychloroprene, caused significant incidences of several tumor types in B6C3F1 mice and Fischer rats, but not in Wistar rats or Syrian hamsters. This project investigates the relevance of the bioassay lung tumor findings to human health risk by developing a physiologically based toxicokinetic (PBTK) model and exploring a tissue specific exposure-dose-response relationship. Key steps included identification of the plausible genotoxic mode of action, experimental quantification of tissue-to-air partition coefficients, scaling of in vitro parameters of CD metabolism for input into the PBTK model, comparing the model with in vivo experimental gas uptake data, selecting an appropriate tissue dosimetric, and predicting a corresponding human exposure concentration. The total daily milligram amount of CD metabolized per gram of lung was compared with the animal bioassay response data, specifically combined bronchiolar adenoma/carcinoma. The faster rate of metabolism in mouse lung agreed with the markedly greater incidence of lung tumors compared with the other rodent species. A lung tissue dose was predicted for the combined rodent lung tumor bioassay data at a 10% benchmark response. A human version of the PBTK model predicted that the lung tissue dose in humans would be equivalent to continuous lifetime daily exposure of 23 ppm CD. PBTK model sensitivity analysis indicated greater dependence of model predictions of dosimetry on physiological than biochemical parameters. The combined analysis of lung tumor response across species using the PBTK-derived internal dose provides an improved alternative to default pharmacokinetic interspecies adjustments for application to human health risk assessment. (+info)
(4/9) Kinetic modeling of beta-chloroprene metabolism: I. In vitro rates in liver and lung tissue fractions from mice, rats, hamsters, and humans.
Beta-chloroprene (2-chloro-1,3-butadiene, CD) is carcinogenic by inhalation exposure to B6C3F1 mice and Fischer F344 rats but not to Wistar rats or Syrian hamsters. The initial step in metabolism is oxidation, forming a stable epoxide (1-chloroethenyl)oxirane (1-CEO), a genotoxicant that might be involved in rodent tumorigenicity. This study investigated the species-dependent in vitro kinetics of CD oxidation and subsequent 1-CEO metabolism by microsomal epoxide hydrolase and cytosolic glutathione S-transferases in liver and lung, tissues that are prone to tumor induction. Estimates for Vmax and Km for cytochrome P450-dependent oxidation of CD in liver microsomes ranged from 0.068 to 0.29 micromol/h/mg protein and 0.53 to 1.33 microM, respectively. Oxidation (Vmax/Km) of CD in liver was slightly faster in the mouse and hamster than in rats or humans. In lung microsomes, Vmax/Km was much greater for mice compared with the other species. The Vmax and Km estimates for microsomal epoxide hydrolase activity toward 1-CEO ranged from 0.11 to 3.66 micromol/h/mg protein and 20.9 to 187.6 microM, respectively, across tissues and species. Hydrolysis (Vmax/Km) of 1-CEO in liver and lung microsomes was faster for the human and hamster than for rat or mouse. The Vmax/Km in liver was 3 to 11 times greater than in lung. 1-CEO formation from CD was measured in liver microsomes and was estimated to be 2-5% of the total CD oxidation. Glutathione S-transferase-mediated metabolism of 1-CEO in cytosolic tissue fractions was described as a pseudo-second order reaction; rates were 0.0016-0.0068/h/mg cytosolic protein in liver and 0.00056-0.0022 h/mg in lung. The observed differences in metabolism are relevant to understanding species differences in sensitivity to CD-induced liver and lung tumorigenicity. (+info)
(5/9) Influence of shooting angle of polishing particle on surface roughness of a cobalt-chromium alloy using a centrifugal shooting type polishing machine.
The centrifugal shooting type polishing machine is a recently developed apparatus that seeks to improve the efficiency and environment of polishing removable prostheses. In an attempt to optimize the effectiveness of this apparatus, this study examined the influence of the shooting angle of polishing particle on the surface roughness of cobalt-chromium alloy casting specimens. Polishing was performed for three minutes under five shooting angle conditions: 90 degrees, 60 degrees, 45 degrees, 30 degrees, and 15 degrees. Surface roughness (Ra, Sm) was measured after each polishing stage. There were significant differences (p < 0.01) in Ra between shooting angle of 90 degrees (0.95 microm) and shooting angles of 45 degrees (0.62 microm) or less, and in Sm between 90 degrees (207 microm), 60 degrees (350 microm), and shooting angles of 45 degrees (868 microm) or less. These findings indicated that excellent surface texture was produced when shooting angle was 45 degrees or less. (+info)
(6/9) Evaluation of an artificial intelligence program for estimating occupational exposures.
Estimation and Assessment of Substance Exposure (EASE) is an artificial intelligence program developed by UK's Health and Safety Executive to assess exposure. EASE computes estimated airborne concentrations based on a substance's vapor pressure and the types of controls in the work area. Though EASE is intended only to make broad predictions of exposure from occupational environments, some occupational hygienists might attempt to use EASE for individual exposure characterizations. This study investigated whether EASE would accurately predict actual sampling results from a chemical manufacturing process. Personal breathing zone time-weighted average (TWA) monitoring data for two volatile organic chemicals--a common solvent (toluene) and a specialty monomer (chloroprene)--present in this manufacturing process were compared to EASE-generated estimates. EASE-estimated concentrations for specific tasks were weighted by task durations reported in the monitoring record to yield TWA estimates from EASE that could be directly compared to the measured TWA data. Two hundred and six chloroprene and toluene full-shift personal samples were selected from eight areas of this manufacturing process. The Spearman correlation between EASE TWA estimates and measured TWA values was 0.55 for chloroprene and 0.44 for toluene, indicating moderate predictive values for both compounds. For toluene, the interquartile range of EASE estimates at least partially overlapped the interquartile range of the measured data distributions in all process areas. The interquartile range of EASE estimates for chloroprene fell above the interquartile range of the measured data distributions in one process area, partially overlapped the third quartile of the measured data in five process areas and fell within the interquartile range in two process areas. EASE is not a substitute for actual exposure monitoring. However, EASE can be used in conditions that cannot otherwise be sampled and in preliminary exposure assessment if it is recognized that the actual interquartile range could be much wider and/or offset by a factor of 10 or more. (+info)
(7/9) DNA interstrand cross-linking activity of (1-Chloroethenyl)oxirane, a metabolite of beta-chloroprene.
(8/9) Cross-species transcriptomic analysis of mouse and rat lung exposed to chloroprene.