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(1/308) Decolorization and detoxification of extraction-stage effluent from chlorine bleaching of kraft pulp by Rhizopus oryzae.

Rhizopus oryzae, a zygomycete, was found to decolorize, dechlorinate, and detoxify bleach plant effluent at lower cosubstrate concentrations than the basidiomycetes previously investigated. With glucose at 1 g/liter, this fungus removed 92 to 95% of the color, 50% of the chemical oxygen demand, 72% of the adsorbable organic halide, and 37% of the extractable organic halide in 24 h at temperatures of 25 to 45 degrees C and a pH of 3 to 5. Even without added cosubstrate the fungus removed up to 78% of the color. Monomeric chlorinated aromatic compounds were removed almost completely, and toxicity to zebra fish was eliminated. The fungal mycelium could be immobilized in polyurethane foam and used repeatedly to treat batches of effluent. The residue after treatment was not further improved by exposure to fresh R. oryzae mycelium.  (+info)

(2/308) Initial reactions in the biodegradation of 1-chloro-4-nitrobenzene by a newly isolated bacterium, strain LW1.

Bacterial strain LW1, which belongs to the family Comamonadaceae, utilizes 1-chloro-4-nitrobenzene (1C4NB) as a sole source of carbon, nitrogen, and energy. Suspensions of 1C4NB-grown cells removed 1C4NB from culture fluids, and there was a concomitant release of ammonia and chloride. Under anaerobic conditions LW1 transformed 1C4NB into a product which was identified as 2-amino-5-chlorophenol by 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. This transformation indicated that there was partial reduction of the nitro group to the hydroxylamino substituent, followed by Bamberger rearrangement. In the presence of oxygen but in the absence of NAD, fast transformation of 2-amino-5-chlorophenol into a transiently stable yellow product was observed with resting cells and cell extracts. This compound exhibited an absorption maximum at 395 nm and was further converted to a dead-end product with maxima at 226 and 272 nm. The compound formed was subsequently identified by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry as 5-chloropicolinic acid. In contrast, when NAD was added in the presence of oxygen, only minor amounts of 5-chloropicolinic acid were formed, and a new product, which exhibited an absorption maximum at 306 nm, accumulated.  (+info)

(3/308) Superficial buffer barrier and preferentially directed release of Ca2+ in canine airway smooth muscle.

We examined cytosolic concentration of Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) in canine airway smooth muscle using fura 2 fluorimetry (global changes in [Ca2+]i), membrane currents (subsarcolemmal [Ca2+]i), and contractions (deep cytosolic [Ca2+]i). Acetylcholine (10(-4) M) elicited fluorimetric, electrophysiological, and mechanical responses. Caffeine (5 mM), ryanodine (0.1-30 microM), and 4-chloro-3-ethylphenol (0.1-0.3 mM), all of which trigger Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release, evoked Ca2+ transients and membrane currents but not contractions. The sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+-pump inhibitor cyclopiazonic acid (CPA; 10 microM) evoked Ca2+ transients and contractions but not membrane currents. Caffeine occluded the response to CPA, whereas CPA occluded the response to acetylcholine. Finally, KCl contractions were augmented by CPA, ryanodine, or saturation of the SR and reduced when SR filling state was decreased before exposure to KCl. We conclude that 1) the SR forms a superficial buffer barrier dividing the cytosol into functionally distinct compartments in which [Ca2+]i is regulated independently; 2) Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release is preferentially directed toward the sarcolemma; and 3) there is no evidence for multiple, pharmacologically distinct Ca2+ pools.  (+info)

(4/308) Earthworm egg capsules as vectors for the environmental introduction of biodegradative bacteria.

Earthworm egg capsules (cocoons) may acquire bacteria from the environment in which they are produced. We found that Ralstonia eutropha (pJP4) can be recovered from Eisenia fetida cocoons formed in soil inoculated with this bacterium. Plasmid pJP4 contains the genes necessary for 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2, 4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) degradation. In this study we determined that the presence of R. eutropha (pJP4) within the developing earthworm cocoon can influence the degradation and toxicity of 2,4-D and 2,4-DCP, respectively. The addition of cocoons containing R. eutropha (pJP4) at either low or high densities (10(2) or 10(5) CFU per cocoon, respectively) initiated degradation of 2,4-D in nonsterile soil microcosms. Loss of 2,4-D was observed within the first week of incubation, and respiking the soil with 2,4-D showed depletion within 24 h. Microbial analysis of the soil revealed the presence of approximately 10(4) CFU R. eutropha (pJP4) g-1 of soil. The toxicity of 2,4-DCP to developing earthworms was tested by using cocoons with or without R. eutropha (pJP4). Results showed that cocoons containing R. eutropha (pJP4) were able to tolerate higher levels of 2,4-DCP. Our results indicate that the biodegradation of 2, 4-DCP by R. eutropha (pJP4) within the cocoons may be the mechanism contributing to toxicity reduction. These results suggest that the microbiota may influence the survival of developing earthworms exposed to toxic chemicals. In addition, cocoons can be used as inoculants for the introduction into the environment of beneficial bacteria, such as strains with biodegradative capabilities.  (+info)

(5/308) Heat-induced expression and chemically induced expression of the Escherichia coli stress protein HtpG are affected by the growth environment.

Differences in expression of the Escherichia coli stress protein HtpG were found following exposure of exponentially growing cells to heat or chemical shock when cells were grown under different environmental conditions. With an htpG::lacZ reporter system, htpG expression increased in cells grown in a complex medium (Luria-Bertani [LB] broth) following a temperature shock at 45 degrees C. In contrast, no HtpG overexpression was detected in cells grown in a glucose minimal medium, despite a decrease in the growth rate. Similarly, in pyruvate-grown cells there was no heat shock induction of HtpG expression, eliminating the possibility that repression of HtpG in glucose-grown E. coli was due to catabolite repression. When 5 mM phenol was used as a chemical stress agent for cells growing in LB broth, expression of HtpG increased. However, when LB-grown cells were subjected to stress with 10 mM phenol and when both 5 and 10 mM phenol were added to glucose-grown cultures, repression of htpG expression was observed. 2-Chlorophenol stress resulted in overexpression of HtpG when cells were grown in complex medium but repression of HtpG synthesis when cells were grown in glucose. No induction of htpG expression was seen with 2, 4-dichlorophenol in cells grown with either complex medium or glucose. The results suggest that, when a large pool of amino acids and proteins is available, as in complex medium, a much stronger stress response is observed. In contrast, when cells are grown in a simple glucose mineral medium, htpG expression either is unaffected or is even repressed by imposition of a stress condition. The results demonstrate the importance of considering differences in growth environment in order to better understand the nature of the response to an imposed stress condition.  (+info)

(6/308) Fraction of electrons consumed in electron acceptor reduction and hydrogen thresholds as indicators of halorespiratory physiology.

Measurements of the hydrogen consumption threshold and the tracking of electrons transferred to the chlorinated electron acceptor (f(e)) reliably detected chlororespiratory physiology in both mixed cultures and pure cultures capable of using tetrachloroethene, cis-1, 2-dichloroethene, vinyl chloride, 2-chlorophenol, 3-chlorobenzoate, 3-chloro-4-hydroxybenzoate, or 1,2-dichloropropane as an electron acceptor. Hydrogen was consumed to significantly lower threshold concentrations of less than 0.4 ppmv compared with the values obtained for the same cultures without a chlorinated compound as an electron acceptor. The f(e) values ranged from 0.63 to 0.7, values which are in good agreement with theoretical calculations based on the thermodynamics of reductive dechlorination as the terminal electron-accepting process. In contrast, a mixed methanogenic culture that cometabolized 3-chlorophenol exhibited a significantly lower f(e) value, 0.012.  (+info)

(7/308) Biodegradation of pentachlorophenol in a continuous anaerobic reactor augmented with Desulfitobacterium frappieri PCP-1.

In this work, a strain of anaerobic pentachlorophenol (PCP) degrader, Desulfitobacterium frappieri PCP-1, was used to augment a mixed bacterial community of an anaerobic upflow sludge bed reactor degrading PCP. To estimate the efficiency of augmentation, the population of PCP-1 in the reactor was enumerated by a competitive PCR technique. The PCP-1 strain appeared to compete well with other microorganisms of the mixed bacterial community, with its population increasing from 10(6) to 10(10) cells/g of volatile suspended solids within a period of 70 days. Proliferation of strain PCP-1 allowed for a substantial increase of the volumetric PCP load from 5 to 80 mg/liter of reaction volume/day. A PCP removal efficiency of 99% and a dechlorination efficiency of not less than 90.5% were observed throughout the experiment, with 3-Cl-phenol and phenol being observable dechlorination intermediates.  (+info)

(8/308) Reductive dehalogenation and conversion of 2-chlorophenol to 3-chlorobenzoate in a methanogenic sediment community: implications for predicting the environmental fate of chlorinated pollutants.

Biotransformation of 2-chlorophenol by a methanogenic sediment community resulted in the transient accumulation of phenol and benzoate. 3-Chlorobenzoate was a more persistent product of 2-chlorophenol metabolism. The anaerobic biotransformation of phenol to benzoate presumably occurred via para-carboxylation and dehydroxylation reactions, which may also explain the observed conversion of 2-chlorophenol to 3-chlorobenzoate.  (+info)