Degradation of chlorobenzenes at nanomolar concentrations by Burkholderia sp. strain PS14 in liquid cultures and in soil.
The utilization of 1,2,4,5-tetrachloro-, 1,2,4-trichloro-, the three isomeric dichlorobenzenes and fructose as the sole carbon and energy sources at nanomolar concentrations was studied in batch experiments with Burkholderia sp. strain PS14. In liquid culture, all chlorobenzenes were metabolized within 1 h from their initial concentration of 500 nM to below their detection limits of 0.5 nM for 1,2,4,5-tetrachloro- and 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene and 7.5 nM for the three dichlorobenzene isomers, with 63% mineralization of the tetra- and trichloroisomers. Fructose at the same initial concentration was, in contrast, metabolized over a 4-h incubation period down to a residual concentration of approximately 125 nM with 38% mineralization during this time. In soil microcosms, Burkholderia sp. strain PS14 metabolized tetrachlorobenzene present at 64.8 ppb and trichlorobenzene present at 54.4 ppb over a 72-h incubation period to below the detection limits of 0.108 and 0.09 ppb, respectively, with approximately 80% mineralization. A high sorptive capacity of Burkholderia sp. strain PS14 for 1,2,4, 5-tetrachlorobenzene was found at very low cell density. The results demonstrate that Burkholderia sp. strain PS14 exhibits a very high affinity for chlorobenzenes at nanomolar concentrations. (+info
Localization and comparative toxicity of methylsulfonyl-2,5- and 2,6-dichlorobenzene in the olfactory mucosa of mice.
Several methylsulfonyl (MeSO2) metabolites formed from chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons have been identified in human milk, lung, and body fat, as well as in the tissues of Baltic grey seals and arctic polar bears. The tissue localization and nasal toxicity of two methylsulfonyl-substituted dichlorobenzenes (diCl-MeSO2-B), with the chlorine atoms in the 2,5-, and 2,6- positions, were investigated in female NMRI and C57B1 mice. Using tape-section autoradiography, animals dosed i.v. with 14C-labeled 2,5-, or 2,6-(diCl-MeSO2-B) showed a preferential uptake of radioactivity in the olfactory mucosa and the tracheobronchial epithelium. Histopathology showed that 2,6-(diCl-MeSO2-B) is a potent toxicant that induces necrosis in the olfactory mucosa following a single dose as low as 4 mg/kg (i.p. injection), whereas 2,5-(diCl-MeSO2-B) induced no signs of toxicity in the olfactory mucosa at doses as high as 130 mg/kg (i.p. injection). Necrosis of the Bowman's glands was the first sign of 2,6-(diCl-MeSO2-B)-induced toxicity followed by degeneration of the neuroepithelium, which implies that the Bowman's gland may be the primary site of toxicity and degeneration of the neuroepithelium may be a secondary effect. Administration of the parent compounds, 1,3-dichlorobenzene and 1,4-dichlorobenzene, or the chlorinated analog 1,2,3-trichlorobenzene (85, 85, and 105 mg/kg, respectively; i.p. injection), induced no signs of toxicity in the olfactory mucosa. These and previous results suggest that 2,6-positioned chlorine atoms and an electron withdrawing substituent in the primary position is an arrangement that predisposes for toxicity in the olfactory mucosa. (+info
Chronotropic, inotropic, dromotropic and coronary vasodilator effects of bisaramil, a new class I antiarrhythmic drug, assessed using canine isolated, blood-perfused heart preparations.
The cardiovascular effects of a new class I antiarrhythmic drug, bisaramil, were examined using canine isolated, blood-perfused heart preparations. Bisaramil exerted negative chronotropic, inotropic and dromotropic effects as well as coronary vasodilator action, which are qualitatively the same as those of classical class I drugs. The selectivity of bisaramil for the intraventricular conduction vs the other cardiac variables was compared with that of disopyramide and flecainide. Bisaramil was the most selective for intraventricular conduction, while it was the least selective for ventricular muscle contraction. We conclude that bisaramil may become a useful antiarrhythmic drug with less cardiac adverse effects. (+info
A high-throughput digital imaging screen for the discovery and directed evolution of oxygenases.
BACKGROUND: Oxygenases catalyze the hydroxylation of a wide variety of organic substrates. An ability to alter oxygenase substrate specificities and improve their activities and stabilities using recombinant DNA techniques would expand their use in processes such as chemical synthesis and bioremediation. Discovery and directed evolution of oxygenases require efficient screens that are sensitive to the activities of interest and can be applied to large numbers of crude enzyme samples. RESULTS: Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) couples the phenolic products of hydroxylation of aromatic substrates to generate colored and/or fluorescent compounds that are easily detected spectroscopically in high-throughput screening. Coexpression of the coupling enzyme with a functional mono- or dioxygenase creates a pathway for the conversion of aromatic substrates into fluorescent compounds in vivo. We used this approach for detecting the products of the toluene-dioxygenase-catalyzed hydroxylation of chlorobenzene and to screen large mutant libraries of Pseudomonas putida cytochrome P450cam by fluorescence digital imaging. Colors generated by the HRP coupling reaction are sensitive to the site of oxygenase-catalyzed hydroxylation, allowing the screen to be used to identify catalysts with new or altered regiospecificities. CONCLUSIONS: The coupled oxygenase-peroxidase reaction system is well suited for screening oxygenase libraries to identify mutants with desired features, including higher activity or stability and altered reaction specificity. This approach should also be useful for screening expressed DNA libraries and combinatorial chemical libraries for hydroxylation catalysts and for optimizing oxygenase reaction conditions. (+info
Comparative hepatocarcinogenicity of hexachlorobenzene, pentachlorobenzene, 1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene, and 1,4-dichlorobenzene: application of a medium-term liver focus bioassay and molecular and cellular indices.
Of the twelve different chlorobenzene isomers, a thorough evaluation of carcinogenicity has only been assessed on monochlorobenzene, 1,2-, and 1,4-dichlorobenzene, and hexachlorobenzene. In the studies presented here, we measured the ability of 1,4-dichlorobenzene (DCB), 1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene (TeCB), pentachlorobenzene (PeCB), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) to promote glutathione S-transferase pi (GSTP1-1) positive preneoplastic foci formation in rat liver, following diethylnitrosamine (DEN) initiation. The results from these studies show that TeCB, PeCB, and HCB all promote the formation of GSTP1-1 positive foci and that DCB does not. The numbers and area of foci were greatest following HCB promotion, and TeCB and PeCB were approximately equal in their promoting ability. Levels of hepatic CYP1A2, CYP2B1/2, non-focal GSTP1-1, and c-fos were measured in response to treatment with the 4 chlorobenzene isomers, as were reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) levels. Results from these studies show that induction of CYP1A2 and CYP2B1/2 have correlation with both the presence and degree of GSTP1-1 foci promotion by the 4 chlorobenzenes. Alterations in GSH and GSSG levels were similar in PeCB- and TeCB-treated animals in that GSSG levels were significantly decreased, whereas HCB and DCB did not have this effect, although HCB treatment led to a significant increase in GSH levels. We conclude that induction of CYP1A2 or CYP2B1/2 by chlorobenzene isomers may indicate promotional ability, and that this property might be exploited to predict the hepatocarcinogenicity of other chlorobenzene isomers. (+info
Inhibition of NFkappaB-mediated pro-inflammatory gene expression in rat mesangial cells by the enolized 1,3-dioxane-4, 6-dione-5-carboxamide, CGP-43182.
1. CGP-43182 has been described as a potent inhibitor of group IIA secreted phospholipase A(2) (group IIA sPLA(2)) activity in vitro. In rat mesangial cells, inhibition of group IIA sPLA(2) activity by CGP-43182 results in a 70% reduction of cytokine-stimulated prostaglandin E(2) biosynthesis, suggesting that group IIA sPLA(2) participates in arachidonic acid release and eicosanoid formation. Under these conditions the cytosolic phospholipase A(2) is not affected. 2. In mesangial cells, in addition to inhibition of catalytic activity, the membrane-permeant CGP-43182 completely blocked interleukin 1beta (IL1beta)-stimulated group IIA sPLA(2) gene expression. 3. A further action of CGP-43182 was a complete inhibition of cyclo-oxygenase-2 gene expression, resulting in a drastic reduction of prostaglandin formation in mesangial cells. 4. Moreover, CGP-43182 completely blocked IL1beta-induced gene expression of the inducible nitric oxide synthase, leading to an inhibition of cytokine-stimulated nitric oxide formation. 5. In contrast, the stimulatory effect of the cell-permeant cyclic AMP-analogue, dibutyryl-cAMP, on the induction of these enzymes was not inhibited by CGP-43182. These data indicate that CGP-43182 interferes with IL1beta- but not cyclic AMP-activated transcriptional regulation. 6. By studying components of the upstream transcription machinery, we observed an inhibition of NFkappaB activation by CGP-43182 in IL1beta-treated cells. Moreover, we observed that CGP-43182 prevented the phosphorylation and proteolytic degradation of the endogenous NFkappaB inhibitor, IkappaB, a process necessary for NFkappaB activation. 7. From our data, we propose that CGP-43182 is a potent anti-inflammatory drug useful for preventing the consequences of a concerted action of cytokine-stimulated pro-inflammatory genes mediated by NFkappaB. (+info
A fusion inhibitor (FP-21399) for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus infection: a phase I study.
FP-21399 is a bis(disulfonaphthalene) derivative that prevents human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection of uninfected cells by blocking entry of the virus. FP-21399 shows an affinity for lymph nodes. In this phase I study, FP-21399 was administered intravenously over 1 h as a single dose (0.9, 1.7, 2.8, and 4.2 mg/kg) or as a once-weekly infusion (1, 2, and 3 mg/kg) for 4 consecutive weeks to 34 HIV-1 infected patients with CD4(+) cell counts of 50-400 cells/microL. Concomitant antiretroviral therapy was permitted but not required. The most frequent adverse events involved the transient, dose-dependent appearance of drug- or metabolite-related color in the urine and skin. Plasma drug levels were linear with dose. The drug was cleared, with an elimination half-life of 4 h and a terminal half-life of 1.5-2 days; the terminal half-life represented redistribution and clearance from tissues. FP-21399 administered weekly for 4 weeks was well tolerated. Further studies are necessary to define the role of this fusion inhibitor in the treatment of HIV infection. (+info
Chlorocatechols substituted at positions 4 and 5 are substrates of the broad-spectrum chlorocatechol 1,2-dioxygenase of Pseudomonas chlororaphis RW71.
The nucleotide sequence of a 10,528-bp region comprising the chlorocatechol pathway gene cluster tetRtetCDEF of the 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorobenzene via the tetrachlorocatechol-mineralizing bacterium Pseudomonas chlororaphis RW71 (T. Potrawfke, K. N. Timmis, and R.-M. Wittich, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64:3798-3806, 1998) was analyzed. The chlorocatechol 1,2-dioxygenase gene tetC was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant gene product was purified, and the alpha,alpha-homodimeric TetC was characterized. Electron paramagnetic resonance measurements confirmed the presence of a high-spin-state Fe(III) atom per monomer in the holoprotein. The productive transformation by purified TetC of chlorocatechols bearing chlorine atoms in positions 4 and 5 provided strong evidence for a significantly broadened substrate spectrum of this dioxygenase compared with other chlorocatechol dioxygenases. The conversion of 4,5-dichloro- or tetrachlorocatechol, in the presence of catechol, displayed strong competitive inhibition of catechol turnover. 3-Chlorocatechol, however, was simultaneously transformed, with a rate similar to that of the 4,5-halogenated catechols, indicating similar specificity constants. These novel characteristics of TetC thus differ significantly from results obtained from hitherto analyzed catechol 1,2-dioxygenases and chlorocatechol 1,2-dioxygenases. (+info