A new rapidly growing mycobacterial species, Mycobacterium murale sp. nov., isolated from the indoor walls of a children's day care centre.
Scotochromogenic mycobacterial isolates from water-damaged parts of indoor building materials of a children's day care centre represented a phenetically and genetically distinct group of strains. A 16S rDNA dendrogram (1243 bp) showed that the closest species to the new strain MA112/96T was Mycobacterium abscessus. Phylogenetic and phenetic analyses (100 characteristics) grouped the new isolates with M. abscessus, Mycobacterium vaccae, Mycobacterium aurum and Mycobacterium austroafricanum. Ribotyping with Pvull restriction distinguished the 5 isolates from the other 12 most closely related species by the major bands at 6.5-7 kb and 13-15 kb. The cell morphology of the new isolates was typical of mycobacteria, electron microscopy revealed a triple-layered cell wall with an irregular electron-dense outer layer. They grew at 10-37 degrees C, with no growth at 45 degrees C in 5 d. The gene encoding the secreted 32 kDa protein, specific to mycobacteria, was detected by PCR. The main whole-cell fatty acids were characterized by high tuberculostearic acid 10Me-C18:0 (17% at 28 degrees C), which increased with increasing growth temperature (22% at 37 degrees C). The other main fatty acids were C18:1 cis9 and C16:0 (21-20% each), followed by, C17:1 cis9 (14%), C16:1 cis10 (8%) and also a high amount of C20 alcohol (9%). alpha-Mycolic acids, keto-mycolates and wax esters were present (C60-C90), MK-9(H2) (90%) and MK-8(H2) were the main menaquinones. The cellular phospholipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidyl inositolmannosides and diphosphatidylglycerol. Polyamine content was low. G+C content was 72.9 mol%. The new isolates are proposed as a new species, Mycobacterium murale sp. nov. The type strain is MA112/96T (= DSM 44340T). (+info)
Increase in paediatric acute otitis media diagnosed by primary care in two Finnish municipalities--1994-5 versus 1978-9.
In recent decades, several epidemiological studies have been published on acute otitis media (AOM), indicating that the occurrence of AOM is increasing. However, the comparison between the surveys is complicated and biased by several factors, e.g. variable study demography and design and dissimilar diagnostic criteria. The present study was performed with an identical set-up in 1978-9 and 1994-5 to find out potential changes in the occurrence of AOM. All the attacks of AOM among children under 10 years diagnosed by a physician during the 12-month periods 1 June, 1978 to 31 May 1979 and 1 June 1994 to 31 May 1995 were registered retrospectively in two Finnish municipalities. The incidence rate (total number of AOM attacks per 100 child years) was 19 (95% CI 18-21) in 1978-9 and 32 (95% CI 30-34) in 1994-5. The increase in the occurrence of AOM was 68% (95% CI 53-79%, P < 0001). (+info)
The role of domestic factors and day-care attendance on lung function of primary school children.
The results of studies examining the relationship of domestic factors to lung function are contradictory. We therefore examined the independent effects of maternal smoking during pregnancy, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), the presence of a cat, type of heating and cooking used in the home and day-care attendance on lung function after controlling for socioeconomic status (SES). Nine hundred and eighty-nine children from 18 Montreal schools were studied between April 1990 and November 1992. Information on the child's health and exposure to domestic factors was collected by questionnaire. Spirometry was performed at school. The data were analysed by multiple linear regression with percent predicted FEV1, FVC, and FEV1/FVC as dependent variables. In the overall sample (both sexes combined), cat in the home (regression coefficient, beta = -1.15, 95% confidence interval, CI: -2.26-(-)0.05) and electric baseboard units (beta = -1.26, 95% CI: -2.39-(-)0.13) were independently associated with a lower FEV1/FVC, while day-care attendance (beta = -2.05, 95% CI: -3.71-(-)0.40) significantly reduced FEV1. Household ETS was significantly associated with increasing level of FVC (beta = 2.86, 95% CI: +0.55 to +5.17). In boys but not girls, household ETS (beta = -2.13, 95% CI: -4.07-(-)0.19) and the presence of a cat (beta = -2.19, 95% CI: -3.94-(-)0.45) were associated with lower FEV1/FVC. By contrast, day-care attendance was associated with lower FEV1 (beta = -2.92, 95% CI: -5.27-(-)0.56) and FEV1/FVC (beta = -1.53, 95% CI: -2.73-(-)0.33) in girls only. In conclusion, the results provide evidence that domestic factors and day-care attendance primarily affected airway caliber and gender differences were apparent in the effects of these factors. (+info)
Childcare needs of female street vendors in Mexico City.
This article reports on strategies developed by female street vendors (vendedoras ambulantes) in Mexico City to ensure the care of their young children in the absence of a specific and operational government policy to fulfil this need. The information concerning child care and health was gathered by a survey of 426 street traders selected by multi-stage random cluster sampling in four of the administrative districts (delegaciones politicas) of Mexico City during 1990. It was found that, as mothers of young children, street vendors most frequently looked after their children personally on the street or left them with other members of the family. Related factors were availability of alternative child care providers in the family, the age of the children and working conditions of the mother. Children who remained on the streets with their mothers suffered more frequently from gastro-intestinal diseases and accidents than the national average. The incidence of acute respiratory diseases, however, was similar in the cases of maternal care in the street and care by family members in another environment. Existing public health measures show a greater concern for the health of food consumers than that of workers in this area. Current public policy seeks to regulate street vending activities and to concentrate traders in ad hoc areas and facilities. Our research results document the need for actions that can contribute to an improvement in the care and health conditions of these young children. (+info)
Williamsia muralis gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from the indoor environment of a children's day care centre.
The taxonomic status of an actinomycete (MA 140/96T) isolated from indoor building materials of a children's day care centre was studied using the polyphasic approach. The cell morphology was atypical for an actinomycete, electron microscopy revealed a hairy surface, highly unusual for Gram-positive bacteria. The organisms grew at 10-37 degrees C, no growth was visible at 5 degrees C and 45 degrees C in 5 d. The cell wall contained the diamino acid meso-diaminopimelic acid and the sugars arabinose, galactose, mannose and ribose. The phospholipids phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol were detected. The only menaquinone found was MK-9(H2). The fatty acid pattern was composed of palmitic acid (23.6%) palmitoleic acid (16.5%) and another hexadecenoic acid 16:1cis11 (1.4%), oleic acid (29.9%), stearic acid (2.9%) and the 10-methyl-branched tuberculostearic acid (23.3%). A gas-chromatographic analysis of the mycolic acid revealed a carbon-chain length of C50-C56. The G + C was 64.8 mol%. The results of 16S rDNA sequence comparisons revealed that strain MA 140/96T represents a new lineage in the suborder Corynebacterineae of the order Actinomycetales. Therefore, it was concluded that strain MA 140/96T should be assigned to a new genus and species, for which the name Williamsia muralis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of the species is MA 140/96T (= DSM 44343T). (+info)
Prevention of varicella. Update recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP).
In February 1999, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) expanded recommendations for varicella (chickenpox) vaccine to promote wider use of the vaccine for susceptible children and adults. The updated recommendations include establishing child care and school entry requirements, use of the vaccine following exposure and for outbreak control, use of the vaccine for some children infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and vaccination of adults and adolescents at high risk for exposure. These recommendations also provide new information on varicella vaccine postlicensure safety data. (+info)
Child outcomes when child care center classes meet recommended standards for quality. NICHD Early Child Care Research Network.
OBJECTIVES: This study assessed outcomes for children when child care centers meet recommended care standards. METHODS: Data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care were used to examine the association between meeting standards for child-staff ratios, group sizes, caregiver training, and caregiver education and children's development at 24 and 36 months of age. RESULTS: There were 5 major findings: (1) most classes observed did not meet all 4 recommended standards (compliance ranged from 10% at 6 months of age to 34% at 36 months of age); (2) linear associations were found between number of standards met and child outcomes, and this was more the case at 36 months than at 24 months of age: (3) there was no evidence of threshold effects; (4) children in classes that met more standards had better school readiness and language comprehension scores as well as fewer behavior problems at 36 months of age; and (5) child outcomes were predicted by child-staff ratio at 24 months and caregiver training and education at 36 months of age. CONCLUSIONS: Outcomes were better when children attended classes that met recommended child-staff ratios and recommended levels of caregiver training and education. (+info)
Molecular epidemiology of childhood astrovirus infection in child care centers.
This study assessed the role of human astrovirus (HAstV) in outbreaks and sporadic cases of diarrhea among children attending child care centers (CCCs) and determined the infecting astrovirus antigenic types by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and sequence analysis. Eight astrovirus outbreaks occurred in 6 CCCs. Of 179 children with diarrhea, 36 (20%) had astrovirus-associated diarrhea. Diarrhea stools obtained during diarrhea outbreaks were more likely to contain astrovirus (40/476) than were samples not associated with a diarrhea outbreak (14/452) (P<.001). Type-specific RT-PCR and DNA sequencing identified 5 outbreaks associated with HAstV-1 and 3 outbreaks with HAstV-2. Sequential outbreaks in 2 CCCs occurred with a different type in the same year. Phylogenetic analysis identified 6 clades of HAstV-1 and 2 clades of HAstV-2 during this 1-year surveillance. Astrovirus was a significant cause of diarrhea outbreaks, and 2 antigenic types were present in the community during 1 diarrhea season. (+info)