Predicting developmental outcomes at school entry using a multiple-risk model: four American communities. The Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group. (1/1571)

The contributions of different risk factors in predicting children's psychological and academic outcomes at the end of 1st grade were examined. Using a regression model, levels of ecobehavioral risk were assessed in the following order: specific demographics, broad demographics, family psychosocial status, mother's depressive symptoms, and neighborhood quality. Participants were 337 families from 4 American communities. Predictor variables were assessed in kindergarten, and teacher, parent, and child outcomes (behavioral and academic) were assessed at the end of 1st grade. Results indicated that (a) each level of analysis contributed to prediction of most outcomes, (b) 18%-29% of the variance was predicted in outcomes, (c) a common set of predictors predicted numerous outcomes, (d) ethnicity showed little unique prediction, and (e) the quality of the neighborhood showed small but unique prediction to externalizing problems.  (+info)

Family factors affecting child development. (2/1571)

In a large, geographically defined population of children a number of family factors in addition to social class, determined by the father's occupation, were recorded by health visitors and school nurses with routine responsibility for these children. The quality of the children in normal schools was assessed in terms of nonverbal IQ and height at the ages of 5 and 10 years, and of behavior as reported by the teacher at the age of 10 years. By analysis of variance the sum of the independent effects of the other family factors greatly outweighed that of occupational social class, except in the case of the IQ at 10 years. The most important of the other family factors was the quality of the mother's care of her child during the first 3 years of life.  (+info)

Like mother, like daughter: familial patterns of overweight are mediated by mothers' dietary disinhibition. (3/1571)

BACKGROUND: Obese parents are more likely to have obese children. Parents provide both the genes and eating environment for their children and familial patterns of adiposity are the result of gene-environment interactions. Environmental factors are implicated in the rapid increases in prevalence of childhood overweight that have occurred in the past 2 decades. Examination of aspects of the family environment may provide insight into increases in childhood overweight over time. OBJECTIVE: We examined parental characteristics associated with overweight and eating behaviors in preschool children. DESIGN: Seventy-five preschool children and their parents were recruited from local daycare centers. Information was obtained on parents' body mass indexes (BMIs), dietary restraint, and dietary disinhibition. A behavioral index of disinhibited eating in children was used to measure children's eating when given free access to palatable snack foods in the absence of hunger. Children's weight-for-height values were also calculated. RESULTS: Maternal dietary disinhibition (R2 = 0.35, P < 0.01) and maternal BMI (R2 = 0.19, P < 0.05) positively predicted daughters' overweight. Maternal disinhibition (R2 = 0.35, P < 0.05) mediated the relation between mothers' BMI and daughters' overweight when both maternal disinhibition and maternal BMI were used to predict daughters' overweight. Furthermore, when both mothers' disinhibition and daughters' free access intakes were used to predict daughters' overweight, mothers' disinhibition (P < 0.05) showed independent prediction. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that familial influences on child overweight differ according to parent and child sex. Also, these results suggest that mothers' dietary disinhibition mediates familial similarities in degree of overweight for mothers and daughters.  (+info)

Intranasal midazolam for premedication of children undergoing day-case anaesthesia: comparison of two delivery systems with assessment of intra-observer variability. (4/1571)

Midazolam is often used for paediatric premedication. We have compared two methods of administering midazolam intranasally in 44 surgical day-case children allocated randomly to receive midazolam 0.2 mg kg-1 as drops or midazolam 0.1 mg kg-1 from an intranasal spray device. Behaviour was recorded on a four-point scale by the parent, nurse and anaesthetist. Coefficients were obtained representing the change in behaviour score. There was no significant difference in method of administration (coefficient 0.13, P = 0.39). Children were significantly more distressed at the time of premedication and at the time of venous cannulation (coefficients 1.31 and 0.70) than at baseline. There was no significant difference in the assessments between observers. Midazolam by either method was equally effective but acceptability of the premedication was poor in both groups. Intranasal midazolam cannot be recommended as a method for routine premedication of young children.  (+info)

Neuropsychological sequelae of haemolytic uraemic syndrome. Investigators of the HUS Cognitive Study. (5/1571)

BACKGROUND: Severe haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) in childhood can cause stroke, hemiplegia, cortical blindness, and psychomotor retardation. These outcomes are evident at the time of discharge immediately after the acute illness. Less is known about the neuropsychological outcomes of less severely affected children who recover from acute HUS. AIMS: This multicentre case control study investigated the hypothesis that children who survive an acute episode of HUS without recognizable neurological injuries have greater impairment of cognitive, academic, and behavioural functions than controls. DESIGN: Children with HUS were eligible if they had no evidence of severe neurological dysfunction when discharged from one of six Canadian hospitals. Controls had been admitted to hospital for a non-HUS illness and were matched by age, sex, first language, and socioeconomic status. All subjects underwent evaluation of behaviour, academic achievement, cognitive function, and verbal abilities using standardised tests administered by a psychometrist blinded to the case or control status. RESULTS: Ninety-one case control pairs were enrolled. No important differences between patients with HUS and paired controls were evident on tests of IQ, behaviour, verbal abilities, or academic achievement. There was no increased risk of attention deficit disorder among patients with HUS. There was no correlation between the severity of acute renal failure and neuropsychological measures, although scores on some verbal ability tests were lower in those with the highest serum creatinine concentrations during illness. CONCLUSIONS: Children discharged from hospital without apparent neurological injury after an episode of acute HUS do not have an increased risk of subclinical problems with learning, behaviour, or attention.  (+info)

A randomised controlled trial of specialist health visitor intervention for failure to thrive. (6/1571)

AIMS: To determine whether home intervention by a specialist health visitor affects the outcome of children with failure to thrive. METHODS: Children referred for failure to thrive were randomised to receive conventional care, or conventional care and additional specialist home visiting for 12 months. Outcomes measured were growth, diet, use of health care resources, and Bayley, HAD (hospital anxiety and depression), and behavioural scales. RESULTS: Eighty three children, aged 4-30 months, were enrolled, 42 received specialist health visitor intervention. Children in both groups showed good weight gain (mean (SD) increase in weight SD score for the specialist health visitor intervention group 0.59 (0.63) v 0.42 (0.62) for the control group). Children < 12 months in the intervention group showed a higher mean (SD) increase in weight SD score than the control group (0.82 (0.86) v 0.42 (0.79)). Both groups improved in developmental score and energy intake. No significant differences were found for the primary outcome measures, but controls had significantly more dietary referrals, social service involvement, and hospital admissions, and were less compliant with appointments. CONCLUSIONS: The study failed to show that specialist health visitor intervention conferred additional benefits for the child. However, the specialist health visitor did provide a more coordinated approach, with significant savings in terms of health service use. Problems inherent to health service research are discussed.  (+info)

Comparison of oral chloral hydrate with intramuscular ketamine, meperidine, and promethazine for pediatric sedation--preliminary report. (7/1571)

Fifteen consecutive pediatric patients ranging from 3 to 5 years old were selected to receive one of three sedative/hypnotic techniques. Group 1 received oral chloral hydrate 50 mg/kg, and groups 2 and 3 received intramuscular ketamine 2 mg/kg and 3 mg/kg, respectively. In addition to ketamine, patients in groups 2 and 3 received transmucosal intramuscular injections of meperidine and promethazine into the masseter muscle. Sedation for the satisfactory completion of restorative dentistry was obtained for over 40 min on average in the chloral hydrate group, but completion of dental surgery longer than 40 min was achieved in groups 2 and 3 only by intravenous supplements of ketamine.  (+info)

Methylmercury neurotoxicity in Amazonian children downstream from gold mining. (8/1571)

In widespread informal gold mining in the Amazon Basin, mercury is used to capture the gold particles as amalgam. Releases of mercury to the environment have resulted in the contamination of freshwater fish with methylmercury. In four comparable Amazonian communities, we examined 351 of 420 eligible children between 7 and 12 years of age. In three Tapajos villages with the highest exposures, more than 80% of 246 children had hair-mercury concentrations above 10 microg/g, a limit above which adverse effects on brain development are likely to occur. Neuropsychological tests of motor function, attention, and visuospatial performance showed decrements associated with the hair-mercury concentrations. Especially on the Santa Ana form board and the Stanford-Binet copying tests, similar associations were also apparent in the 105 children from the village with the lowest exposures, where all but two children had hair-mercury concentrations below 10 microg/g. Although average exposure levels may not have changed during recent years, prenatal exposure levels are unknown, and exact dose relationships cannot be generated from this cross-sectional study. However, the current mercury pollution seems sufficiently severe to cause adverse effects on brain development.  (+info)